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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Carbon nanotubes towards medicinal biochips

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Abstract This overview focuses on the recent advances in carbon nanotube (CNT)‐based biochips and tries to clarify their potential for modern molecular medicine. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010 2 1–10 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies

Example of microarray prototype for visual detection of microalbuminuria (mAU). The 56 urine samples have been spotted manually onto 15 × 15‐mm nitrocellulose matrix. The borded spot (upper left corner) represents high level of blackness typical for mAU, because of the increased concentration of albumin.

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Scheme of biochip (‘lab‐on‐chip’) based on microarray of carbon nanotube field‐effect transistor (CNT‐FET) biosensors. The samples are spotted automatically using a microfluidics/actuators block (upper left). This block is controlled by a microchip (bottom right block, just a schematic photo). The target biomolecules are detected using a microarray of CNT‐FET biosensors (upper right block), which is connected to the same microchip. This microchip also provides human‐friendly representation of the obtained results using an output indication (and/or diagnostics at bottom left block).

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Electrochemical scheme of label‐free biosensor based on carbon nanotube field‐effect transistor. The electrical current through the channel CNT is altered upon binding the ligand–receptor (because of the charge of the ligand) and can be detected, e.g., by the change of radio frequency (RF) signal.

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Example of computer detection of microalbuminuria (mAU) using microarray prototype. The borded spots have been detected as the samples with mAU, while the numerical concentrations of albumine have been computed in the right‐hand table, according to the blackness of the spots.

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