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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanotubes in biosensing

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Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have extensively been used for electrochemical and optical biosensing due to the unique mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties. This review introduces two functionalization categories, noncovalent interaction along the CNTs sidewalls via physical adsorption or entrapment and covalent binding via carboxylate chemistry or nonselective attack of nanotube sidewalls by highly reactive species and gives an overview on the functionalized CNTs‐based biosensing methodologies for DNA, antigen‐antibody, cells, and other biological molecules. Furthermore, the in vivo near‐IR fluorescence biosensing application of CNTs with high photostability and efficiency is discussed. Finally, field‐effect transistors based on semiconductor CNTs are also summarized for ultrasensitive detection. Biosensors based on CNTs provide a significant avenue for the detection of biomolecules in vivo and in vitro applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2010 2 496–509 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing

Noncovalent adsorption of single‐walled carbon nanotube with 1‐pyrenebutanoic acid, succinimidyl ester via π–π stacking. Amine groups on a biomolecule react with the anchored succinimidyl ester to form amide bonds for biomolecule immobilization. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 7. Copyright 2001 American Chemical Society).

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(a) Binding of thrombin on an single‐walled carbon nanotubes‐field‐effect transistor (SWCNT‐FET)‐based aptamer sensor. (b) The sensitivity of SWCNT‐FET aptamer sensor as a function of thrombin concentration. (c) The sensitivity of SWCNT‐FET aptamer sensor as a function of thrombin concentration. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 40. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).

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Single‐molecule H2O2 detection: (a) Schematic of biotinylated DNA–single‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) binding to a glass surface with bovine serum albumin–biotin and Neutravidin. (b) Fitted traces from a movie showing single‐step SWCNT emission quenching upon perfusion of H2O2. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 35. Copyright 2009 Nature Publishing).

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(a) Preparation and enzyme‐catalyzed analysis of the designed cytosensor. (b) Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) curves of HRP‐ConA/BGC/RGDS‐SWCNT/GCE obtained with BGC cell concentrations of 1 × 103, 5 × 103, 1 × 104, 5 × 104, 1 × 105, 5 × 105, 1 × 106, 6 × 106, and 1 × 107 cells mL−1 (from a′ to i′). Inset: plot of DPV peak current versus logarithm of BGC cell concentration. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 22. Copyright 2008 ACS).

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Schematic representation of (a) preparation procedure of glucose oxidase (GOD)–Au Nps/carbon nanotubes (CNTs)‐Ab2 tracer and (b) preparation of immunosensors and sandwich‐type electrochemical immunoassay. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 17. Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society).

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(a) Scheme for signaling biomolecular interaction by the assembly of single‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and dye‐labeled single strand DNA. (b) Fluorescence emission spectra of 50 nM FAM‐labeled oligonucleotides (P1) in (a′) phosphate buffer (PBS), (b′)300 nM perfect cDNA (T1), (c′) SWCNT, and (d′) SWCNT + 300 nM T1. Inset: fluorescence intensity ratio of P1 and P1–SWCNT with F/F0 plotted against the logarithm of the concentration of T1. Excitation was at 480 nm, and emission was monitored at 528 nm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 11. Copyright 2008 ACS).

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Covalent assembly of the single‐walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)‐based GOD electrode. SWCNT was firstly immobilized via carbodiimide chemistry on the electrode surface, and then the amino derivative of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor was covalently attached to the carboxyl groups at the SWCNT tips. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 31. Copyright 2004 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA).

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