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Eukaryotic 5S rRNA biogenesis

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Abstract The ribosome is a large complex containing both protein and RNA which must be assembled in a precise manner to allow proper functioning in the critical role of protein synthesis. 5S rRNA is the smallest of the RNA components of the ribosome, and although it has been studied for decades, we still do not have a clear understanding of its function within the complex ribosome machine. It is the only RNA species that binds ribosomal proteins prior to its assembly into the ribosome. Its transport into the nucleolus requires this interaction. Here we present an overview of some of the key findings concerning the structure and function of 5S rRNA and how its association with specific proteins impacts its localization and function. WIREs RNA 2011 2 523–533 DOI: 10.1002/wrna.74 This article is categorized under: Translation > Translation Mechanisms RNA Processing > RNA Editing and Modification RNA Processing > tRNA Processing RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease

Structure of 5S rRNA. Loops are labeled A–E and helices I–V. Translucent blue ovals represent contacts with TFIIIA and L5 (data used by permission of author).4

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Modular structure of eukaryotic characterized 5S rRNA binding proteins. Interpro signatures are as follows: L18p: IPR005484 Ribosomal_L18/L5; C2H2: IPR015880 Zn finger C2H2‐like, LaHTH: IPR006630; RRM: IPR000504 (RNP1); RRM3: IPR014886; Vertical blue flags indicate nuclear export signals (NES) as defined by NetNES 1.1. The six rectangles beneath rL5 define the ribosomal L5 signature.

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Interactions of 5S rRNA within the ribosome. (a) Position of 5S rRNA (blue) in the CP of the ribosome. (b) Close‐up view of the interactions between 5S rRNA (blue) and motifs in the LSU 26S rRNA; red: helix 38 (A‐site finger), green: helix 39, black: helix 42, violet: helix 89, cyan: helix 91. PDB accession numbers: 3JYV, 3JYW, 3JYX.

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Ribosomal biogenesis pathway. This diagram depicts the biogenesis of yeast 60S ribosomal subunits, including proteins that have known association at specific stages in this process. We have also included two of the known 60S subunit export factors: exportin 1 and Nmd3. Dashed arrows indicate known biogenesis and transport processes. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 5. Copyright 1999 American Society for Microbiology; and from Ref 6. Copyright 2009 American Society for Microbiology.)

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Preribosomal interactions of 5S rRNA with its predominant binding partners. This figure indicates both the transient and more stable interaction of 5S rRNA (La, TFIIIA, and L5, respectively). The nuclear export of 5S rRNA can occur together with either TFIIIA or L5 but return to the nucleus occurs only in conjunction with L5.

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RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease
RNA Processing > RNA Editing and Modification
RNA Processing > tRNA Processing
Translation > Translation Mechanisms

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