This WIREs title offers downloadable PowerPoint presentations of figures for non-profit,
educational use, provided the content is not modified and full credit is given to the author
References1 Niehrs, C, Pollet, N. Synexpression groups in eukaryotes. Nature 1999, 402:483–487. 2 Maniatis, T, Reed, R. An extensive network of coupling among gene expression machines. Nature 2002, 416:499–506. 3 Orphanides, G, Reinberg, D. A unified theory of gene expression. Cell 2002, 108:439–451. 4 Hieronymus, H, Silver, PA. A systems view of mRNP biology. Genes Dev 2004, 18:2845–2860. 5 Perou, CM, Jeffrey, SS, van de Rijn, M, Rees, CA, Eisen, MB, et al. Distinctive gene expression patterns in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999, 96:9212–9217. 6 Grigull, J, Mnaimneh, S, Pootoolal, J, Robinson, MD, Hughes, TR. Genome‐wide analysis of mRNA stability using transcription inhibitors and microarrays reveals posttranscriptional control of ribosome biogenesis factors. Mol Cell Biol 2004, 24:5534–5547. 7 Tenenbaum, SA, Carson, CC, Lager, PJ, Keene, JD. Identifying mRNA subsets in messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes by using cDNA arrays. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000, 97:14085–14090. 8 Wang, Y, Liu, CL, Storey, JD, Tibshirani, RJ, Herschlag, D, et al. Precision and functional specificity in mRNA decay. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002, 99:5860–5865. 9 Gygi, SP, Rochon, Y, Franza, BR, Aebersold, R. Correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in yeast. Mol Cell Biol 1999, 19:1720–1730. 10 Ideker, T, Thorsson, V, Ranish, JA, Christmas, R, Buhler, J, et al. Integrated genomic and proteomic analyses of a systematically perturbed metabolic network. Science 2001, 292:929–934. 11 Keene, JD. Ribonucleoprotein infrastructure regulating the flow of genetic information between the genome and the proteome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001, 98:7018–7024. 12 Wilusz, CJ, Wilusz, J. HuR‐SIRT: the hairy world of posttranscriptional control. Mol Cell 2007, 25:485–487. 13 Hao, S, Baltimore, D. The stability of mRNA influences the temporal order of the induction of genes encoding inflammatory molecules. Nat Immunol 2009, 10:281–288. 14 Ben‐Tabou de‐Leon, S, Davidson, EH. Modeling the dynamics of transcriptional gene regulatory networks for animal development. Dev Biol 2009, 325:317–328. 15 Tennyson, CN, Klamut, HJ, Worton, RG. The human dystrophin gene requires 16 hours to be transcribed and is cotranscriptionally spliced. Nat Genet 1995, 9:184–190. 16 Mansfield, KD, Keene, JD. The ribonome: a dominant force in co‐ordinating gene expression. Biol Cell 2009, 101:169–181. 17 Kaplan, JC, Kahn, A, Chelly, J. Illegitimate transcription: its use in the study of inherited disease. Hum Mutat 1992, 1:357–360. 18 Blake, WJ, Cantor, CR, Collins, JJ. Noise in eukaryotic gene expression. Nature 2003, 422:633–637. 19 Rodriguez‐Trelles, F, Tarrio, R, Ayala, FJ. Is ectopic expression caused by deregulatory mutations or due to gene‐regulation leaks with evolutionary potential? Bioessays 2005, 27:592–601. 20 Yanai, I, Korbel, JO, Boue, S, McWeeney, SK, Bork, P, et al. Similar gene expression profiles do not imply similar tissue functions. Trends Genet 2006, 22:132–138. 21 Raj, A, Peskin, CS, Tranchina, D, Vargas, DY, Tyagi, S. Stochastic mRNA synthesis in mammalian cells. PLoS Biol 2006, 4:e309. 22 Keene, JD. RNA regulons: coordination of post‐transcriptional events. Nat Rev Genet 2007, 8:533–543. 23 Halbeisen, RE, Galgano, A, Scherrer, T, Gerber, AP. Post‐transcriptional gene regulation: from genome‐wide studies to principles. Cell Mol Life Sci 2008, 65:798–813. 24 Moore, MJ. From birth to death: the complex lives of eukaryotic mRNAs. Science 2005, 309:1514–1518. 25 Mesarovic, MD, Sreenath, SN, Keene, JD. Search for organising principles: understanding in systems biology. Syst Biol (Stevenage) 2004, 1:19–27. 26 Gao, FB, Carson, CC, Levine, T, Keene, JD. Selection of a subset of mRNAs from combinatorial 3′ untranslated region libraries using neuronal RNA‐binding protein Hel‐N1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994, 91:11207–11211. 27 Lai, EC. Micro RNAs are complementary to 3′ UTR sequence motifs that mediate negative post‐transcriptional regulation. Nat Genet 2002, 30:363–364. 28 Lewis, BP, Shih, IH, Jones‐Rhoades, MW, Bartel, DP, Burge, CB. Prediction of mammalian microRNA targets. Cell 2003, 115:787–798. 29 Friedman, RC, Farh, KK, Burge, CB, Bartel, DP. Most mammalian mRNAs are conserved targets of microRNAs. Genome Res 2009, 19:92–105. 30 Lim, LP, Lau, NC, Garrett‐Engele, P, Grimson, A, Schelter, JM, et al. Microarray analysis shows that some microRNAs downregulate large numbers of target mRNAs. Nature 2005, 433:769–773. 31 Selbach, M, Schwanhausser, B, Thierfelder, N, Fang, Z, Khanin, R, et al. Widespread changes in protein synthesis induced by microRNAs. Nature 2008, 455:58–63. 32 Baek, D, Villen, J, Shin, C, Camargo, FD, Gygi, SP, et al. The impact of microRNAs on protein output. Nature 2008, 455:64–71. 33 Tenenbaum, SA, Lager, PJ, Carson, CC, Keene, JD. Ribonomics: identifying mRNA subsets in mRNP complexes using antibodies to RNA‐binding proteins and genomic arrays. Methods 2002, 26:191–198. 34 Keene, JD. RIP‐Chip: the isolation and identification of mRNAs, microRNAs and protein components of ribonucleoprotein complexes from cell extracts. Nat Protoc 2006, 1:303–307. 35 Landthaler, M, Gaidatzis, D, Rothballer, A, Chen, PY, Soll, SJ, et al. Molecular characterization of human Argonaute‐containing ribonucleoprotein complexes and their bound target mRNAs. RNA 2008, 14:2580–2596. 36 Mukherjee, N, Lager, PJ, Thompson, MA, Keene, JD. Coordinated posttranscriptional mRNA population dynamics during T‐cell activation 2009, to appear. 37 Beitzinger, M, Peters, L, Zhu, JY, Kremmer, E, Meister, G. Identification of human microRNA targets from isolated argonaute protein complexes. RNA Biol 2007, 4:76–84. 38 Ender, C, Krek, A, Friedländer, MR, Beitzinger, M, Weinmann, L, et al. A human snoRNA with microRNA‐like functions. Mol Cell 2008, 32:519–528. 39 Karginov, FV, Conaco, C, Xuan, Z, Schmidt, BH, Parker, JS, et al. A biochemical approach to identifying microRNA targets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007, 104:19291–19296. 40 Hendrickson, DG, Hogan, DJ, Herschlag, D, Ferrell, JE, Brown, P. Systematic identification of mRNAs recruited to argonaute 2 by specific microRNAs and corresponding changes in transcript abundance. PLoS ONE 2008, 3:e2126. 41 Azuma‐Mukai, A, Oguri, H, Mituyama, T, Qian, ZR, Asai, K, et al. Characterization of endogenous human Argonautes and their miRNA partners in RNA silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008, 105:7964–7969. 42 Waggoner, SA, Liebhaber, SA. Identification of mRNAs associated with alphaCP2‐containing RNP complexes. Mol Cell Biol 2003, 23:7055–7067. 43 Lal, A, Mazan‐Mamczarz, K, Kawai, T, Yang, X, Martindale, JL, et al. Concurrent versus individual binding of HuR and AUF1 to common labile target mRNAs. EMBO J 2004, 23:3092–3102. 44 Mazan‐Mamczarz, K, Kuwano, Y, Zhan, M, White, EJ, Martindale, JL, et al. Identification of a signature motif in target mRNAs of RNA‐binding protein AUF1. Nucleic Acids Res 2008, 37:204–214. 45 Mazan‐Mamczarz, K, Hagner, PR, Dai, B, Wood, WH, Zhang, Y, et al. Identification of transformation‐related pathways in a breast epithelial cell model using a ribonomics approach. Cancer Res 2008, 68:7730–7735. 46 van der Brug, MP, Blackinton, J, Chandran, J, Hao, LY, Lal, A, et al. RNA binding activity of the recessive parkinsonism protein DJ‐1 supports involvement in multiple cellular pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008, 105:10244–10249. 47 Yeo, GW, Coufal, NG, Liang, TY, Peng, GE, Fu, XD, et al. An RNA code for the FOX2 splicing regulator revealed by mapping RNA‐protein interactions in stem cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol 2009, 16:130–137. 48 Eystathioy, T, Chan, EK, Tenenbaum, SA, Keene, JD, Griffith, K, et al. A phosphorylated cytoplasmic autoantigen, GW182, associates with a unique population of human mRNAs within novel cytoplasmic speckles. Mol Biol Cell 2002, 13:1338–1351. 49 Mazan‐Mamczarz, K, Hagner, PR, Corl, S, Srikantan, S, Wood, WH, et al. Post‐transcriptional gene regulation by HuR promotes a more tumorigenic phenotype. Oncogene 2008, 27:6151–6163. 50 López de Silanes, I, Zhan, M, Lal, A, Yang, X, Gorospe, M. Identification of a target RNA motif for RNA‐binding protein HuR. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004, 101:2987–2992. 51 Ruggiero, T, Trabucchi, M, Ponassi, M, Corte, G, Chen, CY, et al. Identification of a set of KSRP target transcripts upregulated by PI3K‐AKT signaling. BMC Mol Biol 2007, 8:28. 52 Winzen, R, Thakur, BK, Dittrich‐Breiholz, O, Shah, M, Redich, N, et al. Functional analysis of KSRP interaction with the AU‐rich element of interleukin‐8 and identification of inflammatory mRNA targets. Mol Cell Biol 2007, 27:8388–8400. 53 Penalva, LO, Burdick, MD, Lin, SM, Sutterluety, H, Keene, JD. RNA‐binding proteins to assess gene expression states of co‐cultivated cells in response to tumor cells. Mol Cancer 2004, 3:24. 54 Gama‐Carvalho, M, Barbosa‐Morais, NL, Brodsky, AS, Silver, P, Carmo‐Fonseca, M. Genome‐wide identification of functionally distinct subsets of cellular mRNAs associated with two nucleocytoplasmic‐shuttling mammalian splicing factors. Genome Biol 2006, 7:R113. 55 Galgano, A, Forrer, M, Jaskiewicz, L, Kanitz, A, Zavolan, M, et al. Comparative analysis of mRNA targets for human PUF‐family proteins suggests extensive interaction with the miRNA regulatory system. PLoS ONE 2008, 3:e3164. 56 Morris, AR, Mukherjee, N, Keene, JD. Ribonomic analysis of human Pum1 reveals cis‐trans conservation across species despite evolution of diverse mRNA target sets. Mol Cell Biol 2008, 28:4093–4103. 57 Tremblay, GA, Richard, S. mRNAs associated with the Sam68 RNA binding protein. RNA Biol 2006, 3:90–93. 58 Sanford, J, Wang, X, Mort, M, Vanduyn, N, Cooper, DN, et al. Splicing factor SFRS1 recognizes a functionally diverse landscape of RNA transcripts. Genome Res 2009, 19:381–394. 59 Sanford, J, Coutinho, P, Hackett, JA, Wang, X, Ranahan, W, et al. Identification of nuclear and cytoplasmic mRNA targets for the shuttling protein SF2/ASF. PLoS ONE 2008, 3:e3369. 60 Townley‐Tilson, WH, Pendergrass, SA, Marzluff, WF, Whitfield, ML. Genome‐wide analysis of mRNAs bound to the histone stem‐loop binding protein. RNA 2006, 12:1853–1867. 61 López de Silanes, I, Galbán, S, Martindale, JL, Yang, X, Mazan‐Mamczarz, K, et al. Identification and functional outcome of mRNAs associated with RNA‐binding protein TIA‐1. Mol Cell Biol 2005, 25:9520–9531. 62 Kim, HS, Kuwano, Y, Zhan, M, Pullmann, R, Mazan‐Mamczarz, K, et al. Elucidation of a C‐rich signature motif in target mRNAs of RNA‐binding protein TIAR. Mol Cell Biol 2007, 27:6806–6817. 63 Emmons, J, Townley‐Tilson, WH, Deleault, KM, Skinner, SJ, Gross, RH, et al. Identification of TTP mRNA targets in human dendritic cells reveals TTP as a critical regulator of dendritic cell maturation. RNA 2008, 14:888–902. 64 Tanaka, TS, Lopez de Silanes, I, Sharova, LV, Akutsu, H, Yoshikawa, T, et al. Esg1, expressed exclusively in preimplantation embryos, germline, and embryonic stem cells, is a putative RNA‐binding protein with broad RNA targets. Dev Growth Differ 2006, 48:381–390. 65 Brown, V, Jin, P, Ceman, S, Darnell, JC, O`Donnell, WT, et al. Microarray identification of FMRP‐associated brain mRNAs and altered mRNA translational profiles in fragile X syndrome. Cell 2001, 107:477–487. 66 Liu, W, Seto, J, Sibille, E, Toth, M. The RNA binding domain of Jerky consists of tandemly arranged helix‐turn‐helix/homeodomain‐like motifs and binds specific sets of mRNAs. Mol Cell Biol 2003, 23:4083–4093. 67 Licatalosi, DD, Mele, A, Fak, JJ, Ule, J, Kayikci, M, et al. HITS‐CLIP yields genome‐wide insights into brain alternative RNA processing. Nature 2008, 456:464–469. 68 Ule, J, Jensen, KB, Ruggiu, M, Mele, A, Ule, A, et al. CLIP identifies Nova‐regulated RNA networks in the brain. Science 2003, 302:1212–1215. 69 Doyle, JP, Dougherty, JD, Heiman, M, Schmidt, EF, Stevens, TR, et al. Application of a translational profiling approach for the comparative analysis of CNS cell types. Cell 2008, 135:749–762. 70 Heiman, M, Schaefer, A, Gong, S, Peterson, JD, Day, M, et al. A translational profiling approach for the molecular characterization of CNS cell types. Cell 2008, 135:738–748. 71 Stoecklin, G, Tenenbaum, SA, Mayo, T, Chittur, SV, George, AD, et al. Genome‐wide analysis identifies interleukin‐10 mRNA as target of tristetraprolin. J Biol Chem 2008, 283:11689–11699. 72 Reynolds, N, Collier, B, Maratou, K, Bingham, V, Speed, RM, et al. Dazl binds in vivo to specific transcripts and can regulate the pre‐meiotic translation of Mvh in germ cells. Hum Mol Genet 2005, 14:3899–3909. 73 Hogan, DJ, Riordan, DP, Gerber, A, Herschlag, D, Brown, P. Diverse RNA‐binding proteins interact with functionally related sets of RNAs, suggesting an extensive regulatory system. Plos Biol 2008, 6:e255. 74 Hasegawa, Y, Irie, K, Gerber, A. Distinct roles for Khd1p in the localization and expression of bud‐localized mRNAs in yeast. RNA 2008, 14:2333–2347. 75 Inada, M, Guthrie, C. Identification of Lhp1p‐associated RNAs by microarray analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals association with coding and noncoding RNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004, 101:434–439. 76 Hieronymus, H, Silver, P. Genome‐wide analysis of RNA‐protein interactions illustrates specificity of the mRNA export machinery. Nat Genet 2003, 33:155–161. 77 Shepard, KA, Gerber, AP, Jambhekar, A, Takizawa, PA, Brown, PO, et al. Widespread cytoplasmic mRNA transport in yeast: identification of 22 bud‐localized transcripts using DNA microarray analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003, 100:11429–11434. 78 Takizawa, PA, DeRisi, JL, Wilhelm, JE, Vale, RD. Plasma membrane compartmentalization in yeast by messenger RNA transport and a septin diffusion barrier. Science 2000, 290:341–344. 79 Kim Guisbert, K, Duncan, K, Li, H, Guthrie, C. Functional specificity of shuttling hnRNPs revealed by genome‐wide analysis of their RNA binding profiles. RNA 2005, 11:383–393. 80 Duttagupta, R, Tian, B, Wilusz, CJ, Khounh, DT, Soteropoulos, P, et al. Global analysis of Pub1p targets reveals a coordinate control of gene expression through modulation of binding and stability. Mol Cell Biol 2005, 25:5499–5513. 81 Gerber, A, Herschlag, D, Brown, P. Extensive association of functionally and cytotopically related mRNAs with Puf family RNA‐binding proteins in yeast. Plos Biol 2004, 2:E79. 82 Li, AM, Watson, A, Fridovich‐Keil, JL. Scp160p associates with specific mRNAs in yeast. Nucleic Acids Res 2003, 31:1830–1837. 83 Zanetti, ME, Chang, IF, Gong, F, Galbraith, DW, Bailey‐Serres, J. Immunopurification of polyribosomal complexes of Arabidopsis for global analysis of gene expression. Plant Physiol 2005, 138:624–635. 84 Schmitz‐Linneweber, C, Williams‐Carrier, RE, Williams‐Voelker, PM, Kroeger, TS, Vichas, A, et al. A pentatricopeptide repeat protein facilitates the trans‐splicing of the maize chloroplast rps12 pre‐mRNA. Plant Cell 2006, 18:2650–2663. 85 Beick, S, Schmitz‐Linneweber, C, Williams‐Carrier, R, Jensen, B, Barkan, A. The pentatricopeptide repeat protein PPR5 stabilizes a specific tRNA precursor in maize chloroplasts. Mol Cell Biol 2008, 28:5337–5347. 86 Pauli, F, Liu, Y, Kim, YA, Chen, PJ, Kim, SK. Chromosomal clustering and GATA transcriptional regulation of intestine‐expressed genes in C. elegans. Development 2006, 133:287–295. 87 Roy, PJ, Stuart, JM, Lund, J, Kim, SK. Chromosomal clustering of muscle‐expressed genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 2002, 418:975–979. 88 Easow, G, Teleman, AA, Cohen, S. Isolation of microRNA targets by miRNP immunopurification. RNA 2007, 13:1198–1204. 89 Yang, Z, Edenberg, H, Davis, RL. Isolation of mRNA from specific tissues of Drosophila by mRNA tagging. Nucleic Acids Res 2005, 33:e148. 90 Gerber, A, Luschnig, S, Krasnow, MA, Brown, P, Herschlag, D. Genome‐wide identification of mRNAs associated with the translational regulator PUMILIO in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006, 103:4487–4492. 91 Blanchette, M, Labourier, E, Green, RE, Brenner, SE, Rio, DC. Genome‐wide analysis reveals an unexpected function for the Drosophila splicing factor U2AF50 in the nuclear export of intronless mRNAs. Mol Cell 2004, 14:775–786. 92 Blanchette, M, Green, RE, MacArthur, S, Brooks, AN, Brenner, SE, et al. Genome‐wide analysis of alternative pre‐mRNA splicing and RNA‐binding specificities of the Drosophila hnRNP A/B family members. Mol Cell 2009, 33:438–449. 93 Noé, G, De Gaudenzi, JG, Frasch, AC. Functionally related transcripts have common RNA motifs for specific RNA‐binding proteins in trypanosomes. BMC Mol Biol 2008, 9:107. 94 Estévez, AM. The RNA‐binding protein TbDRBD3 regulates the stability of a specific subset of mRNAs in trypanosomes. Nucleic Acids Res 2008, 36:4573–4586. 95 Gaillard, H, Aguilera, A. A novel class of mRNA‐containing cytoplasmic granules are produced in response to UV‐irradiation. Mol Biol Cell 2008, 19:4980–4992. 96 Ule, J, Jensen, K, Mele, A, Darnell, RB. CLIP: a method for identifying protein‐RNA interaction sites in living cells. Methods 2005, 37:376–386. 97 Keene, JD, Lager, PJ. Post‐transcriptional operons and regulons co‐ordinating gene expression. Chromosome Res 2005, 13:327–337. 98 Keene, JD, Tenenbaum, SA. Eukaryotic mRNPs may represent posttranscriptional operons. Mol Cell 2002, 9:1161–1167. 99 Mukhopadhyay, R, Ray, PS, Arif, A, Brady, AK, Kinter, M, et al. DAPK‐ZIPK‐L13a axis constitutes a negative‐feedback module regulating inflammatory gene expression. Mol Cell 2008, 32:371–382. 100 Vyas, K, Chaudhuri, S, Leaman, DW, Komar, AA, Musiyenko, A, et al. Genome‐wide polysome profiling reveals an inflammation‐responsive posttranscriptional operon in gamma interferon‐activated monocytes. Mol Cell Biol 2009, 29:458–470. 101 Mazumder, B, Sampath, P, Seshadri, V, Maitra, RK, DiCorleto, PE, et al. Regulated release of L13a from the 60S ribosomal subunit as a mechanism of transcript‐specific translational control. Cell 2003, 115:187–198. 102 Bartel, DP, Chen, CZ. Micromanagers of gene expression: the potentially widespread influence of metazoan microRNAs. Nat Rev Genet 2004, 5:396–400. 103 Anantharaman, V, Koonin, EV, Aravind, L. Comparative genomics and evolution of proteins involved in RNA metabolism. Nucleic Acids Res 2002, 30:1427–1464. 104 Chan, CS, Elemento, O, Tavazoie, S. Revealing posttranscriptional regulatory elements through network‐level conservation. PLoS Comput Biol 2005, 1:e69. 105 Wickens, M, Bernstein, DS, Kimble, J, Parker, R. A PUF family portrait: 3`UTR regulation as a way of life. Trends Genet 2002, 18:150–157. 106 Spassov, DS, Jurecic, R. The PUF family of RNA‐binding proteins: does evolutionarily conserved structure equal conserved function?. IUBMB Life 2003, 55:359–366. 107 Pullmann, R Jr, Kim, HH, Abdelmohsen, K, Lal, A, Martindale, JL, et al. Analysis of turnover and translation regulatory RNA‐binding protein expression through binding to cognate mRNAs. Mol Cell Biol 2007, 27:6265–6278. 108 Anderson, P, Kedersha, N. RNA granules. J Cell Biol 2006, 172:803–808. 109 Anderson, P, Kedersha, N. Stress granules: the Tao of RNA triage. Trends Biochem Sci 2008, 33:141–150. 110 Pearson, K. Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Evolution. Philos Trans R Soc London A 1894, 185:71–110. 111 Newman, JR, Ghaemmaghami, S, Ihmels, J, Breslow, DK, Noble, M et al. Single‐cell proteomic analysis of S. cerevisiae reveals the architecture of biological noise. Nature 2006, 441:840–846. 112 Wilkinson, DJ. Stochastic modelling for quantitative description of heterogeneous biological systems. Nat Rev Genet 2009, 10:122–133. 113 Ip, JY, Tong, A, Pan, Q, Topp, JD, Blencowe, BJ, et al. Global analysis of alternative splicing during T‐cell activation. RNA 2007, 13:563–572. 114 Pan, Q, Shai, O, Misquitta, C, Zhang, W, Saltzman, AL, et al. Revealing global regulatory features of mammalian alternative splicing using a quantitative microarray platform. Mol Cell 2004, 16:929–941. 115 Wang, ET, Sandberg, R, Luo, S, Khrebtukova, I, Zhang, L, et al. Alternative isoform regulation in human tissue transcriptomes. Nature 2008, 456:470–476. 116 Lai, WS, Parker, JS, Grissom, SF, Stumpo, DJ, Blackshear, PJ. Novel mRNA targets for tristetraprolin (TTP) identified by global analysis of stabilized transcripts in TTP‐deficient fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol 2006, 26:9196–9208. 117 Raghavan, A, Ogilvie, RL, Reilly, C, Abelson, ML, Raghavan, S, et al. Genome‐wide analysis of mRNA decay in resting and activated primary human T lymphocytes. Nucleic Acids Res 2002, 30:5529–5538. 118 Yang, E, van Nimwegen, E, Zavolan, M, Rajewsky, N, Schroeder, M, et al. Decay rates of human mRNAs: correlation with functional characteristics and sequence attributes. Genome Res 2003, 13:1863–1872. 119 Lam, LT, Pickeral, OK, Peng, AC, Rosenwald, A, Hurt, EM, et al. Genomic‐scale measurement of mRNA turnover and the mechanisms of action of the anti‐cancer drug flavopiridol. Genome Biol 2001, 2:RESEARCH0041. 120 Lu, X, de la Pena, L, Barker, C, Camphausen, K, Tofilon, PJ. Radiation‐induced changes in gene expression involve recruitment of existing messenger RNAs to and away from polysomes. Cancer Res 2006, 66:1052–1061. 121 Ule, J, Ule, A, Spencer, J, Williams, A, Hu, JS, et al. Nova regulates brain‐specific splicing to shape the synapse. Nat Genet 2005, 37:844–852. 122 Ule, J, Stefani, G, Mele, A, Ruggiu, M, Wang, X, et al. An RNA map predicting Nova‐dependent splicing regulation. Nature 2006, 444:580–586.