Home
This Title All WIREs
WIREs RSS Feed
How to cite this WIREs title:
WIREs Water
Impact Factor: 4.436

Pharmaceuticals in surface waters: sources, behavior, ecological risk, and possible solutions. Case study of Lake Geneva, Switzerland

Full article on Wiley Online Library:   HTML PDF

Can't access this content? Tell your librarian.

Nowadays, pharmaceuticals are present in surface waters as well as in groundwaters of developed countries. In the middle of Lake Geneva, for example, one of the largest European lakes, 14 pharmaceuticals are regularly detected in concentrations up to 0.37 µg/L. This pollution is due to the human consumption of drugs and also veterinary use and industrial releases during production. In the case of Lake Geneva, this latter pollution is significant for some specific compounds. But, as shown in this overview, environmental toxicity data are lacking for most of the pharmaceuticals detected in the aquatic environment. For example, the ecotoxicity of metformin, one of the main compounds detected in Lake Geneva, is mostly unknown for the moment. Furthermore, specific effects like endocrine disruption, genotoxicity, or antibioresistance induction, which may be expected because of the mode of action of some drugs, have not yet been investigated for aquatic species. Ecological risk assessment of pharmaceuticals is therefore tricky and most of the time is not feasible. Owing to this lack of knowledge, also due to high biological potency of the pharmaceuticals, it is critical to reduce the release of these compounds to the aquatic system. This may be achieved by ‘at source’ (e.g., urine collection) methods or ‘end of pipe’ (e.g., wastewater treatment) solutions. WIREs Water 2014, 1:69–86. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1006 This article is categorized under: Science of Water > Water Quality
Lake Geneva, Switzerland.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Evolution of the average concentration of carbamazepine at SHL2, at the middle of Lake Geneva, from 2006 to 2011 (Source: Refs , and ).
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Concentrations of 11 pharmaceuticals in 2009 and 2010 in the Venoge (CH) and in the Boiron (CH) (Source: Refs and ).
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Concentrations of some pharmaceuticals in four rivers entering Lake Geneva in 2009 (Source: Ref ).
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Scheme of ecological risk assessment. The environmental concentrations are compared to a water quality criterion. If the ratio is above the value of one, risk reduction measures should be envisioned.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Typical depth profiles for three pharmaceuticals, (a) carbamazepine and mepivacaïne and (b) metformin in Lake Geneva (Source: Refs and ).
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Quantity of antibiotic classes sold in Switzerland in 2008 for veterinary use (Source: Ref ).
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Substance flow analysis for (a) the anti‐inflammatory drug diclofenac and (b) the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The values are given in (kg/year) for both substances.. WWTP: Waste water treatment plant; CSO: combined sewer overflow.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Browse by Topic

Science of Water > Water Quality

Access to this WIREs title is by subscription only.

Recommend to Your
Librarian Now!

The latest WIREs articles in your inbox

Sign Up for Article Alerts