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WIREs Water
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From toilet insecurity to toilet security: creating safe sanitation for women and girls

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For women and girls in low‐income areas, the consequences of inadequate sanitation include fear of harassment, experiences of violence, and psychosocial stress. When safe, usable toilets are not available, women and girls face three types of toilet insecurity: (1) the material reality for many women and girls that they do not have access to a toilet; (2) the risk of venturing out for open defecation if there is no toilet; and (3) having access to a public toilet, but one that is unusable (e.g., filthy) or unsafe (e.g., insufficient lighting), so that women and girls accept the risk of going for open defecation. WIREs Water 2016, 3:19–24. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1122 This article is categorized under: Engineering Water > Water, Health, and Sanitation

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