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WIREs Clim Change
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A critical review of global decarbonization scenarios: what do they tell us about feasibility?

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Dozens of scenarios are published each year outlining paths to a low carbon global energy system. To provide insight into the relative feasibility of these global decarbonization scenarios, we examine 17 scenarios constructed using a diverse range of techniques and introduce a set of empirical benchmarks that can be applied to compare and assess the pace of energy system transformation entailed by each scenario. In particular, we quantify the implied rate of change in energy and carbon intensity and low‐carbon technology deployment rates for each scenario and benchmark each against historical experience and industry projections, where available. In addition, we examine how each study addresses the key technical, economic, and societal factors that may constrain the pace of low‐carbon energy transformation. We find that all of the scenarios envision historically unprecedented improvements in energy intensity, while normalized low‐carbon capacity deployment rates are broadly consistent with historical experience. Three scenarios that constrain the available portfolio of low‐carbon options by excluding some technologies (nuclear and carbon capture and storage) a priori are outliers, requiring much faster low‐carbon capacity deployment and energy intensity improvements. Finally, all of the studies present comparatively little detail on strategies to decarbonize the industrial and transportation sectors, and most give superficial treatment to relevant constraints on energy system transformations. To be reliable guides for policymaking, scenarios such as these need to be supplemented by more detailed analyses realistically addressing the key constraints on energy system transformation. WIREs Clim Change 2015, 6:93–112. doi: 10.1002/wcc.324 This article is categorized under: Integrated Assessment of Climate Change > Integrated Scenario Development The Carbon Economy and Climate Mitigation > Decarbonizing Energy and/or Reducing Demand
CO2 emissions targets of the global climate stabilization studies reviewed (see Table for key to sources). Dashed lines are for clarity and do not imply emissions trajectories.
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Historical and projected total global installed power generation capacity (see Table for key sources).
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Worldwide normalized capacity addition rates of total power system capacity and key power generation technologies since 1965 (sources: Refs ) and ranges of normalized capacity additions for scenarios reviewed. All capacity addition rates normalized by constant dollar global GDP.
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Projected installed power generation capacity in 2030, and current installed capacity in 2009 (‘other’ includes oil, biomass, geothermal, and ocean).
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Share of projected total primary energy demand for specified year by energy source (nonbiomass renewables includes hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal; see Table for key sources).
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Global trends in energy intensity, past, and projected (sources: Refs , and the various studies reviewed herein).
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Projected total primary energy demand for the climate stabilization scenarios reviewed (see Table for key to sources). Dashed lines are for clarity and do not imply energy trajectories.
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Integrated Assessment of Climate Change > Integrated Scenario Development
The Carbon Economy and Climate Mitigation > Decarbonizing Energy and/or Reducing Demand

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