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WIREs Dev Biol
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Adult gastric stem cells and their niches

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Adult gastric stem cells replenish the gastric epithelium throughout life. Recent studies have identified diverse populations of stem cells, progenitor cells, and even differentiated cells that can regain stem cell capacity, so highlighting an unexpected plasticity within the gastric epithelium, both in the corpus and antrum. Two niches seem to co‐exist in the gastric unit: one in the isthmus region and the other at the base of the gland, although the precise features of the cell populations and the two niches are currently under debate. A variety of gastric organoid models have been established, providing new insights into niche factors required by the gastric stem cell populations. Here we review our current knowledge of gastric stem cell populations, their markers and interactions, important niche factors, and different gastric organoid systems. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e261. doi: 10.1002/wdev.261 This article is categorized under: Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Stem Cells and Disease Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells
Gastric architecture, cell types, and stem cell markers. (a) and (b): The general architecture of the human (a) or murine (b) stomach. (c): Organization of antral and corpus glands and associated stem cell markers. Gray bars mark the regions of expression of the respective marker. (d): Flow chart detailing differentiation from stem cells via (committed) progenitor cells to differentiated cells. Main cell lines in the stomach are mucus pit cell (pink), mucus neck cell (green), chief cell (blue), and parietal cells (brown). Rare cell lines are enteroendocrine cells (purple) and tuft cells (dark blue). The general dogma postulates that differentiation is a one way street from stem cells toward terminally differentiated cells. However, recent studies have shown a remarkable plasticity, due to which differentiated cells could regain stem cell capacity displayed especially in cases of damage and repair.
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Techniques to assay stem cell capacity. (a): Lineage tracing enables in vivo fate mapping of specific cells. Lineage tracing from stem cells results in characteristic ribbons of clonally expanded cells. (b): Organoids can generate the lineages of a specific tissue epithelium in vitro and thus serve as an in vitro surrogate model to test stem cell capacity.
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Overview of organoid culture systems. Tissue resident adult stem cells‐derived organoids from mouse and human can be maintained long‐term in culture. Over time, they become purely epithelial. Pluripotent stem cell‐derived organoids recapitulate the developmental steps that lead to the formation of gastric tissue and contain both mesenchyme as well as epithelium, but cannot be expanded long‐term.
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Distribution of cell types and niche factors in the gland. Bars on the left side depict the abundance of the cell types. Circles between the two corpus glands depict proposed gradients of niche factors. The abundance of SHH‐secreting parietal cells in the neck region leads to the formation of a gradient of SHH. SHH then regulates mesenchymal BMP expression. There is only indirect data for the proposed WNT gradients depicted here. Its possible source is not clear.
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Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells
Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Stem Cells and Disease
Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches