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WIREs Dev Biol
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Dermal fibroblast in cutaneous development and healing

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The skin is the largest organ of the body and is composed of two layers: the overlying epidermis and the underlying dermis. The dermal fibroblasts originate from distinct locations of the embryo and contain the positional identity and patterning information in the skin. The dermal fibroblast progenitors differentiate into various cell types that are fated to perform specific functions such as hair follicle initiation and scar formation during wound healing. Recent studies have revealed the heterogeneity and plasticity of dermal fibroblasts within skin, which has implications for skin disease and tissue engineering. The objective of this review is to frame our current understanding and provide new insights on the origin and differentiation of dermal fibroblasts and their function during cutaneous development and healing. WIREs Dev Biol 2018, 7:e307. doi: 10.1002/wdev.307 This article is categorized under: Birth Defects > Organ Anomalies Signaling Pathways > Cell Fate Signaling Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Regeneration Nervous System Development > Vertebrates: Regional Development
Dermal fibroblasts in distinct anatomical locations originate from different precursors. Mouse embryo at E9.5 to 14.5 showing craniofacial dermis is derived from both cranial neural crest (red) and cephalic mesoderm (blue), ventral trunk and limb dermis is derived from lateral plate mesoderm (yellow) and dorsal trunk dermis is derived from somites (green).
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Schematic of skin. Left hand side shows embryonic skin development during hair follicle (hf) and dermal condensate (dc)/dermal papillae (dp) formation. Dermal fibroblast progenitors differentiate to the papillary and reticular dermis. Some cells from the papillary dense dermis specialize to become the dc and dp.
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Dermal fibroblast lineages. Dermal fibroblast precursors achieve dermal fate around E12.5 through fate conferring inductive signal regulated by Wnt/β‐catenin signaling. These progenitors further differentiate into papillary, reticular, dermal condensate/papilla and adipocyte lineages during development.
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Nervous System Development > Vertebrates: Regional Development
Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Regeneration
Signaling Pathways > Cell Fate Signaling
Birth Defects > Organ Anomalies