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WIREs Energy Environ.
Impact Factor: 3.297

The role of large‐scale energy storage under high shares of renewable energy

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This paper discusses how a high share of renewable energy (referred to as renewables) will influence the power quality of the grid. The mix of power generation varies from country to country. Each power generator has an important role in minimizing total operating costs and maintaining power quality. Conventionally, middle‐scale thermal power plants play a role in mitigating demand and supply variations. Under a high share of renewables, the supply adjustability of thermal power to mitigate the output variations due to renewables will run short. Therefore, energy storage systems will be required as a countermeasure. The energy storage capacity required will depend on the net variation due to a smoothing effect. The magnitude of this net variation is the key for estimating the correct storage capacities. Under net variations of 15 and 30%, the respective global energy storage capacities needed have been predicted to be 189 and 305 GW in 2050 when aiming at 50% carbon dioxide emission reductions globally. In this working paper, several energy storage systems are reviewed. Specifications for each energy storage system will be identified. It is concluded that an optimum mix of different energy storage systems will be essential to realize decarbonized power grids. WIREs Energy Environ 2015, 4:115–132. doi: 10.1002/wene.114 This article is categorized under: Energy Infrastructure > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Systems Economics > Systems and Infrastructure
CO2 reduction during 2005–2050 based on the BLUE Map scenario. (Reproduced with permission from Ref © OECD/IEA, 2009, Figure 1, p. 7)
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Smoothed output obtained with lead acid battery cells.
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Demonstration wind farm project at Nishime in Akita, Japan. (Reproduced from Ref . Copyright 2008, Fuji Electric Journal)
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10,000 kVA system for instantaneous voltage drop compensator. Source: Meiden Co., 2004.
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Principal of capacitors. (Created by the author based on Ref )
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Principal of vanadium redox flow cell.
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Matrix flywheel system showing flywheel structure (left) and the facility in Stephentown, and an illustration of a 100 kW/25 kWh flywheel (right). (Figure reproduced courtesy of Beacon Power, LLC)
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6.4 kW modules. (Reproduced from Ref . Copyright, Hokuriku Electric Power Company)
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Aerial view of Huntorf. (Reproduced with permission of Fritz Crotogino)
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Arial view of a seawater‐pumped hydro plant. (Reproduced from Ref . Copyright 2004, JPOWER)
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Comparison of energy storage technologies. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010, EPRI)
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Growth of necessary energy storage capacity worldwide during 2010–2050, with net variation ratios of 15% (top) and 30% (bottom). WEU, Western Europe; CHI, China; USA, United States; CSA, Central and South America; JAP, Japan; CAN, Canada; AUS, Australia; IND, India; EEU, Eastern Europe; ODA, Other Developing Asia; FSU, Former Soviet Union; AFR, Africa. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009, IEA)
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Relationship between net wind power variation and necessary storage capacities. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009, IEA)
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Combining variable renewables with gas turbine (GT).
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Adjustable speed rate and operational load range of gas turbine (GT).
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Example of smoothing effect of photovoltaic (PV) power. (Created using data from Ref )
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Concept of smoothing effect on photovoltaic (PV) output.
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Smoothing effect of wind power in Germany. (Reproduced with permission from ‘Prospects for Large Scale Energy Projects in Decarbonised Power Grids’ © OECD/IEA 2009, Figure 11, p. 18)
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Wind farm smoothing effect on net power variation. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2008, IEA)
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Estimated probability distribution from actual data.
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Statistical data of daily irradiation.
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Distribution of wind speed–Weibull distribution: (a) features of Weibull distribution and (b) comparison of Weibull distribution and actual data.
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Normalized operation curve of a wind turbine.
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Comparison of the ramp rates of four power plants.
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Comparison of frequency controllers.
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Comparison of power generation mix. (Reproduced with permission from ‘Prospects for Large Scale Energy Projects in Decarbonised Power Grids’ © OECD/IEA 2009, Figure 6, p. 14)
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Comparison of daily load curves. (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2005, IEEJ)
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Example of long‐ and short‐term variations of wind power. (Created using data from Ref )
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