This Title All WIREs
How to cite this WIREs title:
WIREs Energy Environ.
Impact Factor: 2.922

The carbonate fuel cell—concept to reality

Full article on Wiley Online Library:   HTML PDF

Can't access this content? Tell your librarian.

The high temperature carbonate fuel cell is an ultraclean and high efficiency power generator. Its operating temperature, ∼550–650°C, is considered optimum to facilitate fast reaction kinetics, utilize waste heat efficiently, and at the same time allow use of commercial commodity construction materials and well‐established manufacturing processes which permit cell construction in large sizes. Also, the carbonate fuel cell can be equipped with the unique capability to generate hydrogen within the fuel cell from a hydrocarbon fuel allowing a simpler power plant system design. Because of these favorable attributes, the carbonate fuel cell is leading commercial deployment for clean distributed power. The carbonate fuel cell power plants are currently available in the size ranges 350 kW, 1.4 MW, and 2.8 MW. These plants are installed at numerous locations worldwide and have delivered 2.0 GWh of ultraclean electricity (as of mid‐December, 2013). Carbonate fuel cell technology and product status is described in this article. WIREs Energy Environ 2015, 4:178–188. doi: 10.1002/wene.124 This article is categorized under: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen > Science and Materials
Carbonate fuel cell concept—involves generation of carbonate ions (CO32−) at the cathode, transport through electrolyte and discharge at anode via oxidation with hydrogen.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
2.8 MW biogas DFC plant—world's largest fuel cell plant on biogas.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
DFC3000 power plant—this 2.8 MW plant represents the largest production volume among the three FCE products (350 kW, 1.4 MW, and 2.8 MW) due to lower per kW cost.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Balance of plant process flow—the power plant is divided into three sections: the fuel cell module, mechanical balance of plant, and electrical balance of plant.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Carbonate fuel cell simplified system block flow diagram—consists of water and fuel pretreatment, heat recovery heat exchanger, fuel cell, and an oxidizer.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Four stacks and oxidizer integrated module—this MW‐class module produces 1.4 MW net AC electricity.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Full‐size DFC stack—a full‐size DFC stack uses ∼1 m2 (10 ft2) geometric area, ∼400 cells incorporating the IIR‐DIR design.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
The DFC cell construction—employs commercially available sheet metal and nickel‐based electrodes materials.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
IIR‐DIR internal reforming concept—reforming catalyst is placed in the anode compartment of each cell as well as in reforming units (RU) placed in between fuel cell groups, typically every 6–10 cells. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. , Copyright 2007, Anamaya Publishers)
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Key benefits of DFC—full reforming conversion at low temperature and efficient fuel cell cooling.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Direct fuel cell schematic—integrates the endothermic reformation and exothermic fuel cell reactions.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]
Carbonate fuel cell system schematicCO2 reactant required at the cathode side of the carbonate fuel cell is made available by combusting the fuel exhaust with feed air.
[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Browse by Topic

Fuel Cells and Hydrogen > Science and Materials

Access to this WIREs title is by subscription only.

Recommend to Your
Librarian Now!

The latest WIREs articles in your inbox

Sign Up for Article Alerts