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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation

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Hydrogen has emerged as a promising alternative because it can be derived from a renewable energy sources and used in fuel cells with high efficiency and thus appears as the most promising alternative to fossil fuels. Among the various biological processes known to produce biohydrogen, dark fermentation offers an excellent potential for practical application such as treatment of organic wastes. However, commercialization of the process depends on advances in bioprocess design and optimization along with an understanding of the structure of biohydrogen producing communities and their improvement. The present paper highlights the major factors affecting biohydrogen production as well as the importance of consortium development and molecular understanding of the microorganisms involved in the process toward the realization of a stable hydrogen economy. Further, technological advancements based on improved bioreactor designs and integrated systems based on process economy have been discussed. Based on the recent research on dark fermentative hydrogen production, several new findings and achievements in the field have been highlighted. This article is categorized under: Bioenergy > Science and Materials Bioenergy > Economics and Policy Bioenergy > Systems and Infrastructure Fuel Cells and Hydrogen > Science and Materials
Biohydrogen production processes.
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Biohydrogen production by integrated two photo and one dark fermentation processes.
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Biohydrogen production by two‐stage (hybrid) process.
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Schematic diagrams of biohydrogen production by dark fermentation using (a) batch process and (b) continuous process.
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Experimental setups for biohydrogen production by dark fermentation using (a) immobilized cell and (b) suspended cell.
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Overall biochemical pathway for dark fermentative metabolism (LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; PFOR, pyruvate ferredoxin oxydoreductase; PFL, pyruvate ferredoxin oxydoreductase; PFL, pyruvate formate lyase; FHL, formate hydrogen lyase; ADH, alcohol dehydrogenase; ACK, acetyl CoA kinase; NFOR‐NADH, ferredoxin oxydoreductase.).
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Bioenergy > Science and Materials
Bioenergy > Economics and Policy
Bioenergy > Systems and Infrastructure
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen > Science and Materials

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