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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Has the situation of the ‘have‐nots’ improved?

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Abstract The need to promote significant changes in the production and use of energy in the direction of cleaner fuels and greater energy efficiency provide opportunities to reduce this gap of energy consumption indices between the rich and poor, both in developing and developed countries. Wide disparities in the access and consumption levels of modern fuels and electricity still persist between developing and developed countries, in spite of increased international awareness and efforts. This paper shows that progress has been made in order to increase access to electricity and cleaner cooking fuels and this has improved the standards of living of poor population. However, more efforts are necessary in order to speed up the reduction of the energy gap and eliminate energy poverty. Greater investments in energy efficiency are an essential part of this strategy and some countries are pursuing it. This article is categorized under: Energy Policy and Planning > Economics and Policy Energy and Development > Climate and Environment
The evolution of HDI and energy consumption per capita 2006–2008. Sources: Refs 12 and 13.
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Estimated per capita final energy consumption in OECD and non‐OECD countries. Note: considering the effects of improved energy efficiency as in Figure , stabilization of energy consumption at the same level of 2008 (in useful energy) for OECD countries and an annual increase of 3.5% in per capita energy consumption in developing countries.
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Hypothetical evolution of aggregate energy efficiency in OECD and non‐OECD countries.
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The ratio between per capita energy consumption in developed and developing countries (1971–2008). Source: Ref 12.
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Evolution of household access to modern fuels in select countries since 2004. Source: Ref 4. (Copyright 2010, IEA.)
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Relationship between Energy Development Index (EDI) and Human Development Index (HDI) (2009). Sources: Refs 13 and 24.
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Incremental levels of access to energy services. Source: Ref 3. (Reprinted from The secretary‐general's advisory group on energy and climate change (agecc) summary report and recommendations.)
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Energy and Development > Climate and Environment
Energy Policy and Planning > Economics and Policy

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