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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Global electricity demand, generation, grid system, and renewable energy polices: a review

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The rising concerns on the impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global warming have forced the world to search for alternative clean and green energy resources. Renewable energy is one of the most sustainable forms of energy, and is an increasingly popular replacement to fossil fuels. In line with this, the world has witnessed tremendous growth in renewable energy technologies as well as unprecedented adoption of renewable‐based electricity generation in the past few decades. This review paper focuses on the global energy demand, power generation, electricity production, electrical grid system as well as current global polices to move forward for renewable energy‐based power generation. This work compiles the latest literature (i.e., journal articles, conference proceedings, reports, etc.) on global energy demand, power generation, electrical grid system as well as current global polices related to renewable energy. From the review, it is found that renewable energy is one of the potential resources to fulfill the future energy demand with mitigating GHG emissions and global warming. It is also found that many polices has been implementing globally to promote renewable energy‐based power generation. WIREs Energy Environ 2017, 6:e222. doi: 10.1002/wene.222 This article is categorized under: Energy Infrastructure > Climate and Environment Energy and Climate > Climate and Environment Energy Policy and Planning > Economics and Policy
Estimated renewable energy share of global electricity production, end‐2014.
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Consumption trend and projection by fuel.
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Residential electricity prices in EU and USA.
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Electricity prices for EU countries.
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Electricity domestic consumption in 2014.
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Electricity domestic production in 2014.
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Shares of primary energy from 1965 until 2035.
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Global energy consumption by fuels based on British Petrol (BP) Statistical Review of World Energy 2015.
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Global CO2 emission by fuel.
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Reactive current requirement during Low voltage ride through (LVRT) for E.ON Germany.
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Examples of Low voltage ride through (LVRT) and anti‐islanding protection requirements for small solar PV systems.
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The geographical routes and layout of Desertec Project.
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The geographical routes and layout of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) interconnection.
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Requirement of space for high voltage direct current (HVDC) and high voltage alternate current (HVAC) overhead transmission line tower.
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Radial topology of electricity supply.
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Energy Infrastructure > Climate and Environment
Energy and Climate > Climate and Environment
Energy Policy and Planning > Economics and Policy

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