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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Positive water linkages of producing short rotation poplars and willows for bioenergy and phytotechnologies

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The production of short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) such as poplars and willows is a promising component of global bioenergy and phytotechnology portfolios. In addition to the provision of biomass feedstocks and pollution remediation, these trees and shrubs have been sustainably grown to conserve or utilize water in a variety of applications. Growing these woody plants for multiple uses supports many of the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially Clean Water and Sanitation (SDG6) and Affordable and Clean Energy (SDG7). As a result, focusing on ecosystem services such as freshwater and biomass has become an important aspect of deploying these production systems across variable landscapes. The current review consists of an introduction of ecosystem services and the SDGs, as well as SRWCs and their applications. The middle section of the review contains case studies highlighting the positive water linkages of producing short rotation poplars and willows for bioenergy and phytotechnologies. The review concludes with a section that combines the common themes that are consistent among the case studies to address options for integrating new bioenergy feedstock production systems into rural and urban landscapes to promote environmental, social and economic sustainability. This article is categorized under: Bioenergy > Economics and Policy Bioenergy > Climate and Environment
Research site locations in the United States and Sweden that were reviewed for positive water linkages of producing short rotation poplars and willows for bioenergy and phytotechnologies. Panel a provides a relative location of sites in the northern hemisphere. Panel b zooms into the north central, midwestern, southeastern, and northeastern United States. Panel c zooms into Sweden
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Annual comparison of nitrate‐nitrite nitrogen (denoted as nitrate; mg L−1) leachate in soil water at an agricultural test site in Fairbury, Illinois. Shrub willow (Salix miyabeana Seemen 'SX61') were planted in 2013 (with 2014 representing the first complete growing season) to improve water quality and provide other ecosystem services. Middle and South Grain refer to sampling locations outside the monitoring plots, which are included for reference. Grain was either corn (2011 to 2016) or soybean (2017)
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Scatter plot of poplar survival (%) and tree productivity (dm3 ha−1 yr−1) by site, genomic group, and silvicultural treatments for land application sites in the southeastern United States. Genomic groups are: DD = Populus deltoides Bart. ex Marsh × P. deltoides; TD = P. trichocarpa Torr. & Gray × P. deltoides; DM = P. deltoides × P. maximowiczii A. Henry; DN = P. deltoides × P. nigra L
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Tritium activity concentration (pCi L−1) in transpirate of selected poplar trees grown at the 317 area of Argonne National Laboratory (Lemont, Illinois) (2000 to 2005)
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View of young trees at the 317 area of Argonne National Laboratory (Lemont, Illinois) in July 2001 (i.e., during their third growing season). Densely‐planted willow is in the top left, while poplars growing in TreeWells® are across the middle ground
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Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) (± STE) averaged across growth rings from 3 to 8 years after planting of seven hybrid poplar clones grown for 10 years at three sites in the north central United States. Mean ratios for each site are indicated with a dashed line. Genomic groups are: NM = Populus nigra L. × P. maximowiczii A. Henry (green bars); TDD = (P. trichocarpa Torr. & Gray × P. deltoides Bart. ex Marsh) × P. deltoides (gray bars); DD = P. deltoides × P. deltoides (blue bars)
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