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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Risk mitigation in the electricity market driven by new renewable energy sources

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Abstract An important indicator of supply and demand uncertainty on electricity markets is risk premium (RP), an integral part of electricity price. The level of RP is describing the risk the market actors expect in the future due to the market uncertainties. With the electricity market price behavior rapidly changing, the rising market supply uncertainty is increasing the volatility of RP. To better understand this behavior, power market participants need new models that will efficiently use the information available in the processes driving the electricity price and RP and to explain the influence of RES uncertainties on the future RP and electricity prices. A decade ago, researchers investigating RP focused primarily on the uncertainties arising from consumption forecast and generation outages. RES share in generation mix was small and its influence on uncertainty was negligible, leading to much lower volatilities of RP than today. With the increasing influence of RES, typically exhibiting variability on a sub‐hourly level, traditional models using daily electricity price to calculate RP were becoming inadequate. In this dynamic period of electricity market transformation, this paper highlights the importance of RP signals to market actors. A stochastic method for RP calculation is discussed with the associated RP model, driven by the intraday dynamics. An example of the RP signal is presented on historical price data from the German electricity market, highlighting uncertainty pattern developed over the years. With such an approach, the market actors can adjust their trading strategies thus mitigating their market risk exposure. This article is categorized under: Energy Systems Economics > Economics and Policy Energy Efficiency > Economics and Policy Energy Systems Analysis > Economics and Policy
The connection between historical spot prices and the current futures prices on the PX
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Histogram of RP for month futures in period 2013–2017 for base, peak and off‐peak
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RP for month futures in period 2013–2016 for the base, peak and off‐peak
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The cascading process of the futures market products
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The RP calculation algorithm flow
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The relationship among spot price, estimated spot price, futures price and risk premium
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Risk vs. profit in the four main market strategies
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Energy Systems Analysis > Economics and Policy
Energy Efficiency > Economics and Policy
Energy Systems Economics > Economics and Policy

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