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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Review of life cycle greenhouse gases, air pollutant emissions and costs of road medium and heavy‐duty trucks

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Abstract The desired energy transition to guarantee net‐zero greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions needs to take place in every sector of the global economy. The transport sector is responsible for a large share of energy consumption and GHGs emissions while contributing to the increase in air pollution. Although new technologies are available, the use of diesel in road transport is still predominant. These new technologies, nonetheless, still present inconsistencies in their environment, economic performances and do not necessarily provide improvements when considering the entire fuel life cycle used in medium and heavy‐duty trucks. This systematic review addresses the uncertainties in life cycle studies regarding the road transport sector fuel consumption, GHGs, and air pollutant emissions economic analyses. Results show that there are higher chances of reducing GHGs emissions through biogas or fuel‐cell hydrogen trucks, while PM2.5 and NOx emissions have higher chances of being reduced with fuel‐cell hydrogen or natural gas trucks. There is, however, a reduced interest by the scientific community in the transport literature in dealing with air pollutants, and the focus is mainly on GHGs emissions. When it comes to economic viability, natural gas and hybrid trucks are the best substitutes. This article is categorized under: Energy and Transport > Economics and Policy Energy and Transport > Climate and Environment Energy and Climate > Climate and Environment
Systematic review visual summary
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Box plot of SOx emissions (g/km) for each technology (top) and accumulated probability of the absolute difference between diesel and each technology (bottom, negative values represent higher diesel values)
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Box plot of NOx emissions (g/km) for each technology (top) and accumulated probability of the absolute difference between diesel and each technology (bottom, negative values represent higher diesel values)
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Box plot of PM2.5 emissions (g/km) for each technology (top) and accumulated probability of the absolute difference between diesel and each technology (bottom, negative values represent higher diesel values)
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Box plot of GHG emissions (gCO2e/km) for each technology (top) and accumulated probability of the absolute difference between diesel and each technology (bottom, negative values represent higher diesel values)
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Box plot of fuel consumption (MJ/km) for each technology (top) and accumulated probability of the absolute difference between diesel and each technology (bottom, negative values represent higher diesel values)
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Schematic summary of medium and heavy‐duty trucks (MHDT) options included in the reviewSource: Based on (Camuzeaux et al., 2015; Cooper et al., 2019; Hagos & Ahlgren, 2018; Ližbetin et al., 2018; Sen et al., 2017; Shafiei et al., 2015; Song et al., 2017; Tong et al., 2015; Y. Zhao et al., 2016; Y. Zhao & Tatari, 2017)
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Energy and Climate > Climate and Environment
Energy and Transport > Climate and Environment
Energy and Transport > Economics and Policy

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