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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Recent progress on novel current collector electrodes for energy storage devices: Supercapacitors

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Abstract Current collectors play a very crucial role in the performance of an energy storage device. Regarding supercapacitors, material design, processing, and current collectors' surface properties can result in substantial variation in energy density, power output, cyclic charge–discharge behavior, and other key performance parameters. Most of the reviews in supercapacitor materials and devices focus on the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of electrode materials. In the present report, the recent advances in supercapacitor electrodes in conjunction with current collector materials and design are summarized in light of various supercapacitor devices categorized concerning their applications and working mechanisms. It includes the literature documented on multifarious supercapacitors, that is, flow supercapacitors, alternating current line filtering supercapacitors, redox electrolyte‐enhanced supercapacitor, metal ion hybrid supercapacitors, microsupercapacitors, electrochromic supercapacitors, and self‐healing supercapacitors. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is a new and recent summarized report on the development of current collector materials based on intended applications and the working principles of supercapacitors. This article is categorized under: Energy and Development > Science and Materials Energy Research & Innovation > Science and Materials Energy Systems Analysis > Science and Materials
Schematic showing the working principle of electrochemical flow supercapacitors (adapted from Campos et al., 2013)
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Schematic showing the classification of modern supercapacitors based on their intended applications
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Schematic showing cutting and healing cycle for a smart self‐healable supercapacitor based on hydrogel electrolyte and nickel foam as a current collector (adapted from J. Wang et al., 2017)
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Schematic showing color transformation in an electrochromic supercapacitor device based on poly(indole‐6‐carboxylic acid)/TiO2 nanocomposite with fluorine‐doped SnO2 substrate as a current collector (adapted from Guo et al., 2019)
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Schematic showing fabrication of microsupercapacitor via direct inkjet printing of aqueous inks on flexible graphene substrate with metal foil as a current collector (adapted from B. Li, et al., 2019)
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Schematic showing capacitance variation with the number of charge–discharge cycles for a metal ion hybrid supercapacitor based on Co3O4@MWCNT nanocable as cathode and nickel grid as a current collector (adapted from X. Wang et al., 2015)
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Schematic showing redox‐active supercapacitor based on functionalized porous carbon electrodes and nickel foam as a current collector (adapted from Yan et al., 2018)
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Schematic showing CNT based alternating current line filtering supercapacitor with the metal current‐collector (adapted from Rangom et al., 2015)
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Schematic showing MnO2 and activated carbon slurry based flow supercapacitor in a two‐electrode setup having stainless steel current collectors along with charge storage mechanism (adapted from Hatzell et al., 2014)
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(a–d) A representative image of pristine, bent, cut, and self‐healed supercapacitor based on polyampholyte hydrogel electrolyte and biochar‐reduced graphene oxide electrodes. (e) Plot showing nearly 80% recovery of current density in self‐healed supercapacitor after the planar and perpendicular cut. (f) Schematic representation of perpendicular and reverse crosslinking in hydrogel electrolyte to impart self‐healing property (adapted from X. Li et al., 2017)
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Charging/discharging cycle and performance of tungsten and nickel oxides‐based electrochromic supercapacitor device used to power a mini fan and simultaneously exhibit a color change (adapted from S. Y. Kim, Yun, et al., 2020)
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Schematic representation of recent advances in materials design, architecture, fabrication strategies, and applications of microsupercapacitors (adapted from Bu et al., 2020)
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Synthesis and charge transfer in a 3D graphene‐based lithium and sodium ion supercapacitor with hybrid electrodes (adapted from Zhan et al., 2018)
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Electrochemical reactions showing the enhanced redox activity of KI mixed Na2MoO4 as electrolytes along with the galvanic charge–discharge density curves of the supercapacitor assembly at different current density values (adapted from D. Xu et al., 2017)
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(a) Comparative alternating current (AC) line‐filtering output and performance of aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AEC) along with aqueous hybrid electrochemical capacitor (AHEC) at 1 Hz. (b) Bar chart of the variance of the output signals data of AHEC and AEC with frequency. (c) Schematic showing the circuit arrangement of rectifier. (d) Schematic illustrating the circuit arrangement and filtering process of AHEC. (e) Graph showing the conversion of model sinusoidal AC signal to DC output after passing through the rectifier‐filter assembly (image adapted from M. Wu et al., 2019)
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Energy Systems Analysis > Science and Materials
Energy Research & Innovation > Science and Materials
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