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WIREs Energy Environ.
Impact Factor: 3.297

Nanomaterials‐supported Pt catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

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This paper reviews over 100 articles related to the development of nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanowires as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Several different novel methods for support and catalyst synthesis are discussed in detail. The fabrication processes for these nanomaterial‐supported platinum (Pt) catalysts, catalyst layers, and membrane electrode assemblies are also reviewed. On the basis of the literature review, several research directions for catalyst cost reduction, catalytic activity, and durability enhancement are proposed in this paper. This article is categorized under: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen > Science and Materials
Transmission electron microscope images and size distribution histograms (inserts) of Pt nanoparticles deposited on carbon nanotube (a) and nanofiber (b); scale bars are in 20 nm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society.)
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(a) Comparison of the iR‐free Tafel plots for oxygen reduction reaction. (b) Polarization curves and power density curves in single cell proton exchange membrane fuel cell of membrane electrode assemblies made with Pt/W18O49 NW/carbon paper composite (0.17 mgPt/cm2) and conventional Pt/C electrode (0.20 mgPt/cm2) as cathodes for H2/O2 at 80°C, Nafion 112 membrane, 25/30 psig anode and cathode back pressure, respectively. Anodes were E‐TEK gas diffusion electrode with a Pt loading of 0.5 mgPt/cm2. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2009 Elsevier.)
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(a) Comparison of cell performance with membrane electrode assemblies made of platinum (Pt)/carbon nanotube, Pt/CNx and conventional Pt/C electrodes with H2/O2 at 80°C, Nafion 112 membrane, 25/30 psig anode and cathode back pressure, respectively. Anodes were E‐TEK electrodes with a Pt loading of 0.5 mg/cm2. (b) IR corrected Tafel plots for comparison of kinetic parameters. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2009 Elsevier.)
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Schematic representation of different stacking shapes of grapheme sheets of carbon nanofiber (CNF). CNF‐P: platelet carbon nanofiber; CNF‐R: ribbon‐like carbon nanofiber; CNF‐H: herringbone carbon nanofiber. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2003 Elsevier.)
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Scanning electron microscope images of the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) grown on SiO2 substrates without and with an aluminum buffer layer. (a, b) MWCNTs grown on a SiO2 substrate without an aluminum buffer layer. (c, d) MWCNTs grown on a SiO2 substrate with an aluminum buffer layer. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2008 Elsevier.)
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(a) (i) Schematic honeycomb structure of a graphene sheet. Single‐walled carbon nanotubes can be formed by folding the sheet along lattice vectors. The two basis vectors a1 and a2 are shown. Schematic illustrations of the structures of carbon nanotubes. (ii) Armchair, (iii) zigzag, and (iv) chiral single‐walled nanotubes. (b) Structure of a multiwalled carbon nanotube made up of three shells of differing chirality. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2002 American Chemical Society.)
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Polarization curves for (a) carbon nanotube (CNT)‐based electrode, (b) conventional electrode, and (c) CNT‐based electrode without diffusion layer. Operating conditions: cell temperature 70°C, H2/O2 back pressure 3 atm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2005 The Electrochemical Society.)
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(a) Schematic illustration of the preparation method of gas diffusion electrode and membrane electrode assembly. (b) Scanning electron microscope images of the surface of a multiwalled nanotube/phosphoric acid pyridine‐based polybenzimidazoles/platinum (MWNT/PA‐PyPBI/Pt) catalyst with lower (left) and higher (right) magnification (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2011 RSC Publishing.)
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Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of Pt nanoparticles deposited on SnC nanowires/carbon paper by chemical reduction with glacial acetic acid: (a) low magnification showing distribution of Pt nanoparticles; (b and c) enlargements of selected sections of image (a); and (d) high‐resolution TEM image showing individual Pt particles and nanowire lattice fringe. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2008 Elsevier.)
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High‐resolution transmission electron microscope images of (a) Pt nanoparticels (NPs) covered carbon nanotube (CNT) tip. Inset shows individual particles on end of CNT, (b) individual NPs and clusters along the middle length of CNT. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2010 Elsevier).
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Transmission electron microscope images of Pt nanoparticles deposited on sonochemically treated carbon nanotubes. Platinum loadings: (a) 10, (b) 20, and (c) 30 wt%. (Reprinted with permission from Ref  . Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society.)
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