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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Innovative US energy policy: a review of states' policy experiences

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Since the early 1990s, US energy policy has been driven by state governments. States have adopted a variety of innovative policy instruments to diversify, decarbonize, and decentralize their electricity markets. Because states are still active energy policy leaders, and are continually adopting new or revising existing policies, there is great need for continual evaluation of the effects, effectiveness, challenges, and opportunities associated with these different policy instruments. This analysis synthesizes the findings in the literature to date and provides a summary of both the policy landscapes and the effects associated with some of the leading energy policies, including the renewable portfolio standard, the energy efficiency resource standard, net metering, and interconnection standards. This article is categorized under: Energy Policy and Planning > Economics and Policy Energy and Development > Economics and Policy
Interconnection policy adoption among US states. Note: Thirty‐two states, plus Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico, have adopted state interconnection standards. Eleven states have adopted interconnection guidelines. (Created using data from the North Carolina Solar Center.)
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Net metering policy adoption among US states. Forty‐three states, plus Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico, have adopted state net metering policies. Three states have only voluntary utility programs. (Created using data from the North Carolina Solar Center.)
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Energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) policy adoption among US states. Twenty states have adopted EERSs. Six states have enacted energy efficiency resource goals. (Created using data from the North Carolina Solar Center.)
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Renewable portfolio standard policy adoption among US states. Twenty‐nine states, plus Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico, have adopted some type of renewable portfolio standard. Eight states have enacted renewable portfolio goals. (Created using data from the North Carolina Solar Center.)
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