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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Intermediate temperature proton‐conducting membrane electrolytes for fuel cells

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This review provides an overview of intermediate temperature proton‐conducting membrane electrolyte materials for fuel cells. Such fuel cells operate in the approximate temperature range of 150–300°C and can capitalize on a number of technological reasons for operating H2/air. These reasons include enhancement of electrochemical kinetics, simplified water management, efficient cooling, and useful waste heat recovery. Importantly lower quality, for example, reformed hydrogen, containing relatively large amounts of carbon dioxide, may be used as the fuel. The materials, which have been the focus of intermediate temperature proton‐conducting fuel cells, include heteropolyacids, metal pyrophosphates, solid acids, and acid‐imbibed high‐temperature polymers such as polybenzimidazole. WIREs Energy Environ 2014, 3:24–41. doi: 10.1002/wene.64 This article is categorized under: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen > Science and Materials
Components of a fuel cell.
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Fuel cell performance of CsH2PO4 and Sn0.9In 0.1P2O7 membranes at 250°C.
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Arrhenius plot of some solid acid/silicon pyrophosphate composites. (Reproduced from Ref 42. Copyright 1961, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.)
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Structure of the reactants and the PBI product.
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Polarization and power density curves of a PEMFC operated at 150°C with H2/O2 atmospheric pressure. Pt loading: cathode 0.7 mg cm−2; anode 0.7 mg cm−2; anhydrous condition, H3PO4 loading level: 4.5, gas rate: anode: 40 dm3 min−1; cathode: 70 dm3 min−1.
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Model of Nafion and ionic conductivity mechanism. The Yeager Three Phase Model: (A) fluorocarbon backbone, (B) interfacial region containing some pendant side chains, some water, and sulfate groups, and (C) clustered regions of water‐filled sulfonic acid groups.
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