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WIREs Energy Environ.
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Transmission planning for wind energy in the United States and Europe: status and prospects

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Abstract This paper provides an overview of major transmission planning activities related to wind integration studies in the United States and Europe. Transmission planning for energy resources is different from planning for capacity resources. Those differences are explained, and illustrated with examples from several regions of the United States and Europe. Transmission planning for wind is becoming an iterative process consisting of generation expansion planning, economic‐based transmission planning, system reliability analysis, and wind integration studies. A brief look at the policy environment in which this activity is taking place is provided. A set of coherent and collaborative transmission planning, siting, and permitting policies and cost allocation method must be developed to achieve the intended objectives. The scale of transmission development envisioned for this purpose will require unprecedented cooperation across multiple jurisdictional boundaries. This article is categorized under: Wind Power > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Infrastructure > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Systems Economics > Systems and Infrastructure
Texas Competitive Renewable Energy Zone (CREZ) locations.
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Joint Coordinated System Plan (JCSP) high‐voltage direct current (HVDC) overlay.
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European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) 2030 offshore grid vision.
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Cross‐border links with strong economic expansion benefits identified in the enhanced network scenario—outlook beyond 2015 of the EWIS.
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Optimal grid example for the North Sea region. Green, optimized interconnectors; red, existing interconnectors; blue triangles, major offshore wind farms.
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Grid extension and annual costs of the different technologies: basic grid with standard transmission capacity (basic); flexible line management (FLM); high‐temperature conductors (TAL). (Reprinted with permission from Ref 38. Copyright 2010 German Energy Agency.)
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Spatial distribution of the wind power to be injected in the transmission substations.
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RES‐driven transmission lines included in the Portuguese National Transmission Grid plan of investments (PT RNT) (2006–2010).
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