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WIREs Forensic Sci

A systems approach to integration of military operations and law enforcement investigations: Toward a unified forensic intelligence model

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Abstract The changing nature of war in relation to global terrorism, foreign terrorist fighters and length of conflict has resulted in a transformation of the strategic environment from previous conventional warfare. Coalition forces faced a threat environment in Iraq and Syria of nonconventional warfare that could include improvised, hybrid (a combination of improvised and conventional) and asymmetrical threats. The United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 2396 (2017) and 2322 (2016) obligates the Member States to investigate foreign terrorist fighters and requires a closer alignment between military operations and law enforcement investigations. This has called for forensic science to be employed beyond its traditional support to law enforcement investigations and for the criminal justice system to support military operations. However, there is no unified approach to forensic science support to meet national security objectives. In this review, we discuss the systems approach to the integration of military operations and law enforcement investigations as a unified forensic intelligence model. This article is categorized under: Forensic Medicine > Historical Perspectives Jurisprudence and Regulatory Oversight > Interdisciplinary Collaboration
Military exploitation ranges from questioning of captured persons, site exploitation, document and media exploitation, forensic science, biometrics and technical exploitation
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Unified approach to forensic intelligence. Material collected on the battlefield is processed in deployed or national laboratories to generate intelligence, which is the main objective of exploitation. A unified forensic intelligence model provides closer alignment between forensic science support to military operations and law enforcement investigations to enable the timely provision of intelligence and preservation of the prosecution option, if required
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Military forensic science and technical exploitation system all systems comprise inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes that add value to the larger system
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Relationship between the military campaign phase and military exploitation (forensic intelligence) support to military operations or the criminal justice system. During the shaping and transitioning campaign phases, military exploitation is more likely to support rule of law. Military exploitation during the decisive phase is more likely to support targeting
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The forensic intelligence process in the military domain can be initiated through direction‐collection to meet an information requirement or through collection‐direction when forensic science reporting triggers the forensic intelligence cycle. Forensic intelligence reporting is an input into all‐source intelligence through the process of fusion with other intelligence sources. The outcome can become inputs to future information requirements, for forensic intelligence analysis, inputs into law enforcement investigations or prosecution in the criminal justice system
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Jurisprudence and Regulatory Oversight > Interdisciplinary Collaboration 
Forensic Medicine > Historical Perspectives

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