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WIREs Forensic Sci

Experimentation of digital multimedia forensics: State of the art and research gaps

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Abstract Digital multimedia forensics (DMF) plays an outstanding role in digital forensics (DF) area as it encompasses solutions for promoting image, audio, and video evidence to be used in court. As every science, one straightforward way of evolving is conducting formal experiments and providing reliable and auditable evidence. Therefore, in this article, we systematically map and analyze how experiments in DMF have been conducted and whether data‐based evidence has been provided. This article presents a subset of results on DMF from a wider mapping study on DF experimentation. We then analyzed 49 experiments resulting from electronic and manual searches in widely known electronic databases and conferences/workshops on DF. We used them to answer six research questions. We demonstrated that DMF needs to improve the way experiments are reported, especially how data are shared to allow reproducibility and, consequently, evolution of the research topic. We show that experimental elements, for example, hypothesis, variables, design, instrumentation, validity evaluation, setup, training, data sets and benchmarks, statistical techniques (descriptive, hypothesis, and effect size test), and limitations, should be better reported. As a general result, we understand DMF formal experimentation needs to evolve toward providing useful, reliable, auditable, and reproducible experimental evidence as both academia and practitioners might straightforward benefit from such evolution. This article is categorized under: Digital and Multimedia Science > Multimedia Forensics
Overview of the adopted systematic mapping process
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Mind map of image forensics research topics
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Data analysis and plotting techniques
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Digital and Multimedia Science > Multimedia Forensics

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