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WIREs Forensic Sci

Extraction and analytical approaches in the forensic evaluation of anabolic androgenic steroid formulations

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Abstract Anabolic androgenic steroids are controlled or prohibited substances worldwide since their abusive usage can lead to extensive side effects. For forensic purposes, apprehended formulations of anabolic agents have to be analyzed to determine their components as well as possible adulterants and contaminants. Nevertheless, there are no comprehensive reviews in the field in order to compile the methods and analytical techniques that have been described so far. Therefore, the aim of this work was to review the analytical techniques and methods of extraction available for the analysis of formulations of anabolic agents. In this sense, 76 research works that analyzed formulations of anabolic agents from 1979 to 2021 were reviewed and distributed under the extraction methods and the analytical techniques employed by the authors. Generally, ultrasonic‐assisted extraction associated with methanol as extractor solvent is the procedure of choice with little contribution of solid or liquid–liquid extraction. According to the literature, there are several analytical tools available for the analysis of these substances, although gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry as well as spectroscopic techniques are frequently employed. Nonetheless, novel techniques have been developed in order to decrease analysis time, cost, and sample preparation, which are important features in the expressive numbers of anabolic agents apprehended yearly. Therefore, the application of adequate methods of extraction coupled to suitable analytical techniques can be efficient forensic tools in order to contest the illicit supply of anabolic androgenic steroids providing consistent evidence to legal courts. This article is categorized under: Forensic Chemistry and Trace Evidence > Emerging Technologies and Methods Toxicology > Drug Analysis Toxicology > Analytical Toxicology
Main possible modifications in the structure of teststerone to synthetize anabolic agents
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General steps in the analysis of formulation of anabolic androgenic steroids
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Visual elements evaluated in apprehended products
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Toxicology > Analytical Toxicology
Toxicology > Drug Analysis
Forensic Chemistry and Trace Evidence > Emerging Technologies and Methods

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