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Factor analysis: Latent variable, matrix decomposition, and constrained uniqueness formulations

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Factor analysis (FA) is a time‐honored multivariate analysis procedure for exploring the factors that underlie observed multiple variables to explain their variations. According to how the factors are treated, the formulations of FA can be classified into three approaches. One of them can be called a latent variable (LV) formulation, while the remaining two can be named matrix decomposition (MD) ones. The factors are regarded as random latent variables in the LV formulation, but treated as fixed parameter matrices in the MD ones. Here, the latter MD formulations are subdivided into the one simply called MD and the constrained uniqueness (CU) formulation with a special constraint. As compared to the LV formulation which is classic, MD and CU ones are recently established. Thus, it is useful to review the formulations now. This article is categorized under: Statistical and Graphical Methods of Data Analysis > Multivariate Analysis
Graphical representation of FA with p = 5 and m = 2
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MRFA algorithm
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CUFA algorithm for obtaining Λ
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Adachi and Trendafilov's cone of common‐unique factor scores (Adachi & Trendafilov, )
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MDFA algorithm for obtaining B
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MLEM algorithm
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MLGR algorithm
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LSCF algorithm
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Statistical and Graphical Methods of Data Analysis > Multivariate Analysis

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