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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Microfabricated platforms to modulate and monitor T cell synapse assembly

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Abstract Immunological synapse (IS) is a complex supramolecular structure formed at the interface between T cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) during T cell antigen recognition. Microfabricated platforms have made great contributions to our understanding of the assembly dynamics and functional roles of the T cell synapses over the last decade. Here, we review three different types of microfabricated platforms developed to modulate and monitor the T cell synapse assembly. Firstly, multi‐protein micropatterned surfaces presenting key ligands for T cell activation that can modulate the spatial distribution of receptors/signaling molecules in T cell synapses are described. Secondly, micropatterned supported bilayers that can modulate the dynamics of T cell receptor (TCR) microclusters are introduced. Lastly, T‐APC pair arrays that allow for improved fluorescence live cell imaging are discussed. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2013, 5:67–74. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1182 This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Cells at the Nanoscale Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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(a) Schematic illustration of immunological synapse array. (b) Immunological synapses formed in T cells on various shapes of anti‐CD3 spots. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 23. Copyright 2006 National Academy of Science U.S.A.)

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(a) Schematic diagram of T‐APC interactions in a laterally assembled T‐APC pair array. (b) Schematic of T‐B pair array fabrication demonstrated in Ref 40. (c) DIC/T cell (green)/B cell (red) overlay image of T‐B pair array. (d) Time lapse images of DIC, GFP‐fused PKC‐θ, and Fura ratio (pseudo color Ca++ image). (e) Quantification of PKC‐θ recruitment to IS and intracellular calcium level over time.

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(a) Optical sectioning and reconstruction of en face view of a T‐APC pair. (b) Schematic illustration of vertically aligned T‐APC pair arrays in microwells used in Ref 38.

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(a) Schematic illustration of interaction of T cell‐micropatterned supported lipid bilayer interaction. (b) Altered synaptic formation of T cells on various shapes of micropatterned supported bilayers. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 32. Copyright 2005 American Association for the Advancement of Science). Schematic illustrations of TCR microclusters of T cells on grid (c) and maze (d) patterns of supported bilayers.

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(a) Five different configurations of anti‐CD3/anti‐CD28 spots. (b) IL‐2 secretion of T cells on various configurations of anti‐CD3/CD28 spots. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 22. Copyright 2008 National Academy of Science U.S.A.)

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