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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Biomedical applications of multifunctional plasmonic nanoparticles

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Abstract Plasmonic nanoparticles play an important role in biomedical applications today as they can serve as superior, optically stable bioimaging agents, be employed in biosensor devices for the early diagnosis of diseases, and exhibit promising results in vivo as therapeutic agents. For several bioapplications, however, nanoparticles that express more than one functionality are often advantageous. This has led to the synthesis of multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures that combine the attractive plasmonic properties with other functionalities such as magnetism, photoluminescence, dispersibility in aqueous solutions, and resistance to degradation. Such multifunctional nanoparticles can be detected by multiple imaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, their performance in diagnostics and therapy (theranostics) can be significantly improved facilitating the early detection of diseases. The possibility to tune the desired properties enables such hybrid nanoparticles to be employed in vivo as therapeutic agents that can actively target tumor sites and destroy them by external means. This makes such bionanoprobes ideal candidates for non‐ or minimally invasive cancer treatments. Through rational design and engineering, ‘smart’ multifunctional nanomaterials with unprecedented properties can be made that will lead the nano‐based theranostics in the future. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2013, 5:19–30. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1190 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

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Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors: the basic principle of biomolecule detection. First, the plasmonic nanoparticle deposition occurs on a glass slide, whose optical properties can be monitored in situ (step 1, gray line). Then, the plasmonic surface is biofunctionalized with the ligand biomolecule ( , step 2, red line). The addition of the corresponding biomarker analyte ( ) follows (step 3, green line) that selectively attaches on the ligand biomolecule ( ). The sensor response corresponds to the Δλ plasmon peak shift, which depends on the analyte concentration.

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Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors: the basic principle of biomolecule detection. First, the plasmonic nanoparticle deposition occurs on a glass slide, whose optical properties can be monitored in situ (step 1, gray line). Then, the plasmonic surface is biofunctionalized with the ligand biomolecule ( , step 2, red line). The addition of the corresponding biomarker analyte ( ) follows (step 3, green line) that selectively attaches on the ligand biomolecule ( ). The sensor response corresponds to the Δλ plasmon peak shift, which depends on the analyte concentration.

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Different morphologies of multifunctional plasmonic nanoparticles that include magnetism, photoluminescence, dipsersibility in aqueous solutions, and enhanced stability against degradation by alloying.

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Bioluminescent imaging of tumors in mice following laser irradiation over time and gold nanoshell treatment. The gold‐nanoshell‐treated mice displayed complete or partial tumor loss, while the tumor volume in the mouse of the control group only increased. The survival of the treated mice is significantly longer than the control group mice, as more than 50% of the treated mice remained tumor‐free for more than 90 days. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 38. Copyright 2011 Springer)

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Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors: the basic principle of biomolecule detection. First, the plasmonic nanoparticle deposition occurs on a glass slide, whose optical properties can be monitored in situ (step 1, gray line). Then, the plasmonic surface is biofunctionalized with the ligand biomolecule ( , step 2, red line). The addition of the corresponding biomarker analyte ( ) follows (step 3, green line) that selectively attaches on the ligand biomolecule ( ). The sensor response corresponds to the Δλ plasmon peak shift, which depends on the analyte concentration.

[ Normal View | Magnified View ]

Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors: the basic principle of biomolecule detection. First, the plasmonic nanoparticle deposition occurs on a glass slide, whose optical properties can be monitored in situ (step 1, gray line). Then, the plasmonic surface is biofunctionalized with the ligand biomolecule ( , step 2, red line). The addition of the corresponding biomarker analyte ( ) follows (step 3, green line) that selectively attaches on the ligand biomolecule ( ). The sensor response corresponds to the Δλ plasmon peak shift, which depends on the analyte concentration.

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(a) A hybrid nanoparticle consisting of ZnO quantum dots, plasmonic gold nanoparticles, and anticancer drug in a thermally responsive hydrogel. (b) The ZnO quantum dots enable the nanoparticle detection under a fluorescent microscope (yellow signal), while when these nanoparticles are irradiated by a near‐IR laser, the hydrogel shrinks, releasing, therefore, the anticancer drug (c). (Reprinted with permission from Ref 83. Copyright 2011 Wiley‐VCH)

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Hybrid magnetic–plasmonic core‐shell nanoparticles. Dark‐field images of unlabeled breast cancer cells (a) and of nanoparticle‐labeled cells (b). The hybrid nanoparticles have been selectively attached on the cells and can be clearly detected (scale bar is 30 µm). When these cells are irradiated by a near‐IR laser beam, only the labeled cells are destroyed (c, green marks the living cells), while the cells incubated with PEGylated nanoparticles do not show any effect (d). Scale bar is 100 µm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 66. Copyright 2007 IOP Publishing)

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Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies

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