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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering imaging using noble metal nanoparticles

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Abstract Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging is a powerful technique for studying biological systems both in vitro and in vivo. In SERS, Raman scattering from molecules located near the surface of either gold or silver nanoparticles is enhanced by 105–108. This review describes the basic enhancement mechanism of SERS and provides experimental details that must be considered when performing a SERS imaging experiment with a focus on cellular imaging. Specific examples highlighting the power of SERS for measuring chemical distributions in cells, signal multiplexing, and following dynamic motion of SERS probes in vivo are provided. Potential future directions in which SERS is combined with super‐resolution imaging are also described. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2013, 5:180–189. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1208 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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E‐field enhancement contours external to monomers with different shapes. (a) and (b)The E‐field enhancement contours external to a triangular prism polarized along the two different primary symmetry axes. (c) and (d)The E‐fields enhancement contours for a rod and spheroid polarized along their long axes. The arrows show the site of maximum E‐field enhancement. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 30. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics)

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Surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis of the cellular pathway with an endocytosed gold nanoparticle. (a) An image of a J774.1A macrophage cell taken by dark‐field microscopy. The white arrow indicates a gold nanoparticle seen as a small white spot. The gold nanoparticle is taken up by endocytosis of the cell. (b) SERS spectra, obtained from the nanoparticle indicated in panel (a). Characteristics Raman peaks were observed at 977 cm−1 (assigned to the vibration mode of phosphate), 1457 cm−1 (vibration mode of CH2 and CH3), and 1541 cm−1 (vibration mode of Amide II). These three Raman peaks are overlaid with bars in red, green, and blue. (c) Trajectory of the nanoparticle, marked by a white arrow in panel (a), obtained from the dark‐field images. (d) An RGB color map of the molecular distribution displayed on the nanoparticle trajectory. Green spots show the Raman intensity distribution of 1457 cm−1, blue spots 1541 cm−1, and red spots 977 cm−1. The green and blue colors are highlighted during the linear paths, while the red color appears during the confined zone random walk. The spatial resolution is determined ∼65 nm, resulting from the particle diameter ∼50 nm and measurement accuracy ∼15 nm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 6. Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society)

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Multiplexed imaging of β2‐adrenergic receptor and caveolin‐3 on the surface of a rat cardiomyocyte using MMBN and DMMB functionalized silver nanoparticles (NPs). (a) A bright field optical image of a cell. Deconvoluted images of the β2‐AR receptor distribution labeled with MMBN‐NPs (b) and the cav3 receptor distributions labeled with DMMB‐NPs (c). (d) Overlay of (a), (b) and (c) showing the location of labeled receptors on the cell surface. All scale bars are 5 µm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 49. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry)

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White light imaging of heterogeneous cell depositions on Si wafer (a), Raman imaging at 1300 cm−1 indicating adenine/guanine (b), and 2900 cm−1 indicating C–H bonds (c). The final graph represents the spectrum up to 3200 cm−1. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 44. Copyright 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry)

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