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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Functional protein–organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials

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Abstract Nanotechnology offers immense opportunities for regulating and improving biological functions of proteins in vitro. Recent years have witnessed growing efforts to develop protein‐incorporated hybrid nanostructured materials with potential applications in functional materials, enzymatic catalysis, drug delivery, and analytical sciences. In this review, recent advances in functional protein–organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials are discussed with an emphasis on the novel preparation methods, resulting nanostructures, and their potential applications in drug delivery and enzymatic catalysis. Future directions toward the rational design of these bionanomaterials are suggested. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2013, 5:320–328. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1210 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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Preparation methods and structures of protein‐based bionanomaterials. Examples shown in the figure are that of an immobilized enzyme, a protein–polymer conjugate, a protein–polymer nanogel, and a complex protein‐based nanostructures.

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Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showing the ‘growth process’ of the nanoflowers achieved with bovine serum albumin at concentrations of (a) 0.5 mg/mL, (b) 0.1 mg/mL, and (c) 0.02 mg/mL. Insets to the right show high‐magnification images of the nanoflowers. Insets to the left show flowers in different stages of development in nature. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Nature Publishing Group)

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(a) The procedure for encapsulating a single protein into a nanogel. (b) Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of a horseradish peroxidase‐encapsulated nanogel. (c) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a Candida rugosa lipase‐encapsulated nanogel. (d) Atomic force microscope (AFM) image of a bovine carbonic anhydrase‐encapsulated nanogel. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2006 American Chemical Society; Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society; Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society)

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(a) Self‐assembly of drug‐encapsulated bovine serum albumin (BSA)–poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of BSA–PMMA nanoparticles made with (b) 4 wt% BSA, (c) 69 wt% BSA, and (d) 82 wt% BSA (scale bars are 100 nm). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society; Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons)

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The copolymer carries spiropyran groups regulated by photoirradiation. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 1999 Nature Publishing Group)

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Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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