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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI: contrast media pharmaceutical company R&D perspective

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Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are a relatively large class of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. According to their biodistribution, distinct classes of SPIO nanoparticles have been investigated for clinical applications either as macrophage imaging agents or blood pool agents. Contrast agents which are pharmaceutics followed the same development rules as therapeutic drugs. Several drawbacks such as clinical development difficulties, organization of market access and imaging technological developments have limited the widespread use of these products. SPIO nanoparticles that are composed of thousands iron atoms providing large T2* effects are particularly suitable for theranostic. Stem cell migration and immune cell trafficking, as well as targeted SPIO nanoparticles for molecular imaging studies are mainly at the stage of proof of concept. A major economic challenge in the development of molecular imaging associated with a therapeutic treatment/procedure is to define innovative business models compatible with the needs of all players taking into account that theranostic solutions are promising to optimize resource allocation and ensure that expensive treatments are prescribed to responding patients. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2013. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1225 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Regulatory and Policy Issues in Nanomedicine

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Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles internalized into macrophages: T2/T2* effects. (a) Liver tumor imaging: black signal in the normal liver tissue due to T2/T2* effect of SPIO which have been phagocytosed by Kupffer cell (bright arrow), bright signal in the tumor related to the absence of Kupffer cell (dark arrow). (b) Lymph node imaging: black signal in the normal lymph node due to T2/T2* effect of USPIO which have been phagocytosed by macrophages (bright arrow, right), bright signal in the metastatic lymph node related to the absence of macrophages (dark arrow, left) (lymph node metastatic rabbit model). (c) Inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque imaging: dark signal in the vessel wall due to T2/T2* effect of USPIO which have been phagocytozed by macrophages present in inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque (inflammatory atherosclerotic rabbit model).
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Personalized medicine: a complex professional drawplate.
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Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle applications: biomarker approach.
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Contrast agents are pharmaceutics: R&D process.
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Marketed and investigational MRI contrast agents.
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Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices
Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Regulatory and Policy Issues in Nanomedicine
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