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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
Impact Factor: 7.689

Ultrasmall metal nanoclusters for bio‐related applications

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The study of ultrasmall metal nanoclusters (NCs, ranging from subnanometer to ca 2 nm) is evidently a quickly evolving field in current nanoscience and nanotechnology research. Metal NCs, typically composed of several to hundreds of metal atoms, have attracted great interest in recent years owing to their unique properties including ultrasmall size and enhanced photoluminescence, together with other properties such as excellent photostability, low toxicity, and good biocompatibility desired for biological applications. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of bio‐related applications of metal NCs materials. We highlight the applications of metal NCs for biosensor development, fluorescent biological imaging, and biomedical research, and finally discuss briefly some current challenges and future work. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2013, 5:569–581. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1227 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

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(a) Real‐time in vivo imaging of 250 µL of Au nanoclusters (NCs) intravenously injected at different time points, postinjection. (b) Ex vivo optical imaging of anatomized mice with injection of 200 µL of Au NCs and some dissected organs during necropsy at 6 h postinjection. (c) The organs are heart, liver, spleen, and lung from left to right at up‐level, and left kidney, right kidney, and head from left to right at down‐level. (d) In vivo X‐ray images of 0.1 mL of Au NCs CAs solution intramuscularly injected in the right leg of the mouse. The white arrow points to the Au NCs injection region. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Elsevier)
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(a) Schematic of Au nanoclusters (NCs)‐Her conjugation. (b) Typical autocorrelation curve (solid squares) of Au NCs‐Her diffusing inside the nucleus fitted with two components (black solid line). Inset is the image of SK‐BR3 cells incubated with Au NCs‐Her‐Alexa647 for 4 h. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society)
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Microscopic observation of internalization of the insulin‐Au nanoclusters (NCs). Differentiated C2C12 myoblasts were treated with insulin‐Au NCs for 2 h. (a) Cell nucleus stained with 4′,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole (DAPI, blue). (b) Actin fiber stained with Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin to confirm the cell boundary (green). (c) Insulin‐Au NCs exhibit red luminescence. (d) Fluorescence image overlay of the three images. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 Wiley)
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Schematic showing red fluorescence enhancement of DNA/Ag nanoclusters (NCs) through proximity with a G‐rich overhang, 3′‐G4(TG4)2TG3, caused by DNA hybridization and photographs of the resulting emission under UV (366 nm) irradiation. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society)
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(a) The schematic illustration of the low‐temperature plasma treatment of bovine serum albumin (BSA)‐Au nanoclusters (NCs) and their interaction with proteins. (b) The detection of proteins in human serum after 1D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). (1) BSA‐stabilized Au NC‐based fluorescence imaging (NaAc solution, BSA‐stabilized Au NCs 0.59 mM, pH 3.3). (2) Fluorescence image with oxygen low‐temperature plasma (LTP)‐treated Au NCs. (3) Silver stain. (4) CBB‐R250 stain. The serum samples were diluted to a 1/10 ratio in the sample buffer (6.67% glycerin and 0.05% bromophenol blue). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Elsevier)
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(a) Relative fluorescence (I/I0) of pepsin‐mediated Au25 NCs at excitation λex = 360 nm in the presence of various metal ions (Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Hg2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+) at pH 8. I and I0: the fluorescence intensities of pepsin‐mediated Au25 NCs in the presence and the absence of the metal ion (10 µM), respectively. (b) Fluorescence spectra of aqueous solution of pepsin‐mediated Au25 NCs (i) in the presence and (ii) in the absence of Pb2+ ions (50 µM). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 Wiley)
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The Au nanocluster (NC)‐based sensor for CN detection. (a) Schematic representation, (b) selectivity of the Au‐NC‐based sensor for CN over other anions at pH 12: the concentration of each anion was 5 × 10−6 M. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 Wiley)
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Lysozyme‐protected, red fluorescent Au nanoclusters (NCs) for metal ion detection. Relative fluorescence intensities [(IF0 − IF)/IF0] at 631 nm emission of solutions of lysozyme‐Au NCs after addition of Hg2+ (100 nM), CH3Hg+ (100 nM), and other metal ions (50 µM). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society)
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Ultra‐small metal nanoclusters for bio‐related applications.
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Schematic illustration of the Au nanoclusters (NCs)‐PLA‐GPPS‐FA copolymers. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 American Chemical Society)
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Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing
Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing

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