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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
Impact Factor: 7.689

Nanomaterial‐based advanced immunoassays

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Abstract Immunoassay has been the main stream in clinic diagnostics and still attracts extensive research interest in recent years to develop reliable, fast, sensitive, and specific detection methods and platforms to expand its applications in various areas including proteomics, drug discovery, homeland security, food safety, environmental monitoring, and health care. With the dramatic progress in material science, nanotechnology, and bioconjugation techniques, a great diversity of nanomaterials with desirable superior properties have been designed, synthesized, and tailored to facilitate high‐performance detections for advanced immunoassays. This paper comprehensively reviews recent advances in nanomaterial‐based immunoassay technologies and particularly highlights newly developed strategies associated with interdisciplinary areas for performance enhancement and related mechanisms. The future perspectives of immunosensing technologies are also discussed. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2011 3 119–133 DOI: 10.1002/wnan.124 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing

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Illustration of amperometric immunosensor utilizing the electrocatalytic activity of AuNPs and the high enzyme loading capacity of magnetic beads.10 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 10. Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society).

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Experimental setup for a PEDOT nanowire FET device.89 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 89. Copyright 2009 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co).

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(a) Schematic illustration of the experimental setup for BASI measurement; (b) Expanded view of the silicon substrate used; (c) Model substrate used for simulations.79 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 79. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society).

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SPR detection of environmental toxin with side‐by‐side and end‐to‐end AuNR assemblies.77 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 77. Copyright 2010 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co).

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Schematic representation of the SPR immunosensor for the detection of the small molecules.71 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 71. Copyright 2008 American Chemical Society).

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Schematic illustration of a homogeneous immunoassay using antibody‐conjugated AuNPs and AuNRs coupled with DLS measurement.66 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 66. Copyright 2008 American Chemical Society).

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Representative SEM images of randomly orientated and aligned ZnO nanorods and the fluorescence images and intensities of protein microarrays obtained on different substrates. *Due to the irregular spot shape, the average intensity on aligned ZnO was collected from the biggest circle area on each spot.49 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 49. Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society).

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Schematic illustration of FRET based TNT immunosensor.39 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 39. Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society).

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Scheme showing the detection of drugs and metabolites in latent fingerprints. The primary antibodies were attached on the Protein A/G coated magnetic particles, and the antibody‐conjugated particles are allowed to incubate on a fingerprint. Excess particles were removed by a magnet. Subsequently, a fluorescent secondary antibody fragment was incubated on the fingerprint. Finally the fluorescent image of the fingerprint was acquired.37 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 37. Copyright 2008 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co).

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Illustration of fabrication procedure of AuNPs‐modified 3DOM polyaniline film for impedimetric immunosensor.30 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 30. Copyright 2009 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co).

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Schematic of amperometric immunosensor fabricated on nanoporous alumina membrane.24 (Reprinted with permission from Ref 24. Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society).

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Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing
Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies

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