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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Controlling forces and pathways in self‐assembly using viruses and DNA

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Abstract The ability of both viruses and DNA to self‐assemble in solution has continues to enable numerous applications at the nanoscale. Here we review the relevant interactions dictating the assembly of these structures, as well as discussing how they can be exploited experimentally. Because self‐assembly is a process, we discuss various strategies for achieving spatial and temporal control. Finally, we highlight a few examples of recent advances that exploit the features of these nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2011 3 282–297 DOI: 10.1002/wnan.129 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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Schematic of relevant interactions within two prototypical structures. (a) Rod‐like virus (e.g., fd) and (b) double‐stranded DNA.

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Self‐assembled nanoscale scaffolds as sacrificial templates for inorganic metallization. (a) Selective templating of gold or cobalt on the rod‐like fd virus. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 117. Copyright 2006 American Association for the Advancement of Science) (b) Molecular lithography approach to creates patterned nanowires from DNA templates. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 164. Copyright 2002 American Association for the Advancement of Science) In both cases, microscopy techniques directly confirm the desired structures.

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Self‐assembled nanoscale scaffolds provide multifunctional capabilities in biomedical applications. (a) CPMV scaffolds with individually tunable levels of VEGFR‐1 peptide ligand (for targeting) and PEGylated fluorescein (for imaging). (Reprinted with permission from Ref 108. Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society) (b) DNA nanotubes with individually tunable levels of folate (for targeting) and Cy3 dye (for imaging). (Reprinted with permission from Ref 154. Copyright 2008 American Chemical Society)

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Schematic and examples of strategies for nucleic acid self‐assembly. (Reprinted with permission from Ref 82. Copyright 2006 Elsevier) (a) One‐pot self‐assembly: all the components are mixed together, followed by a gradual cooling.62 (b) Step‐wise self‐assembly: subsets of components are separately assembled into intermediate structures, then mixed in a step‐wise fashion to yield the desired final architecture.83 (c) Scaffolded self‐assembly (e.g., DNA origami): a long ssDNA is folded into an arbitrary shape with short strands acting as ‘staples’.67 (d) Atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirms the formation of the designed structures.

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(a) Map of pH and ionic strength effects on TMV (red) and CCMV (blue) coat protein assembly. (Reprinted with permission from Refs 55,59,68); (b) Map of protein concentration and ionic strength. (Adapted from Ref 70)

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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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