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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanomaterials, Inflammation, and Tissue Engineering

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Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties that are absent in the bulk material because decreasing material size leads to an exponential increase in surface area, surface area to volume ratio, and effective stiffness, resulting in altered physiochemical properties. Diverse categories of nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanoporous scaffolds, nanopatterned surfaces, nanofibers, and carbon nanotubes can be generated using advanced fabrication and processing techniques. These materials are being increasingly incorporated in tissue engineering scaffolds to facilitate the development of biomimetic substitutes to replace damaged tissues and organs. Long‐term success of nanomaterials in tissue engineering is contingent upon the inflammatory responses they elicit in vivo. This review seeks to summarize the recent developments in our understanding of biochemical and biophysical attributes of nanomaterials and the inflammatory responses they elicit, with a focus on strategies for nanomaterial design in tissue engineering applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 7:355–370. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1320 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement
Nanomaterials in tissue engineering. (a) (Left) SEM of ZnO nanoparticles. (Reprinted with permission from Ref Copyright 2011 Springer); (Right) Schematic of a functional nanoparticle, which provides a reliable conduit for delivering drugs, growth factors, cytokines, and other factors. These can be functionalized with biomimetic peptides, targeting moieties, and functional groups for degradation in response to appropriate physiological stimuli. (b) (Left) SEM image of nanoporous alumina. (Reprinted with permission from Ref Copyright 2007 Elsevier Ltd.); (Right) Schematic of a nanoporous scaffold. These scaffolds make for a 3D construct with increased surface area, surface nanoarchitecture, and an ability for controlled delivery of factors. (c) (Left) SEM image of metallic glass nanopillars. (Reprinted with permission from Ref Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society); (Right) Schematic of nanopatterned Surfaces, which present nanotopographical and biomechanical cues to engineer cellular response to tissue engineering scaffolds. (d) (Left) SEM image of PLGA/collagen nanofibers. (Reprinted with permission from Ref Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd.); (Right) Schematic of a nanofibrous scaffold. Nanofibers and nanowires contribute to creation of biomimetic scaffolds that recreate the native extracellular matrix structure. These can also be functionalized/loaded with drugs and other factors for controlled localized delivery. (e) (Left) TEM image of a gelatin‐methacrylate‐coated nanotube. (Reprinted with permission from Ref Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society); (Right) Schematic of carbon nanotubes. These are used to reinforce mechanical strength and promote electrical conductivity in polymers and hydrogels used in tissue engineering applications. They can also serve as excellent drug delivery vehicles.
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement
Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants

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