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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanogels for delivery, imaging and therapy

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Nanogels are hydrogels having size in nanoregime, which is composed of cross‐linked polymer networks. The advantages of nanogels include stimuli‐responsive nature, easy drug loading, and higher drug‐loading capacity, physical stability, versatility in design, stability of entrapped drug, and controlled release of the anti‐inflammatory, antimicrobial, protein, peptide and anticancer drugs. Stimuli‐responsive nature of nanogel is of particular importance in anticancer and anti‐inflammatory drug delivery, as cancer and inflammation are associated with acidic pH, heat generation, and change in ionic content. Nanogels composed of muco‐adhesive polymers provide prolonged residence time and increase the ocular availability of loaded drugs. By forming suitably sized complex with proteins or by acting as artificial chaperones, they thus help to keep the proteins and enzymes in proper confirmation necessary for exerting biological activity; nanogels can increase the stability and activity of protein/peptide drugs. Better drug penetrations achieved by prolonged contact with skin contribute much in transdermal drug delivery. When it comes to cancer drug delivery, the presence of multiple interactive functional groups in nanogels different targeting agents can be conjugated for delivery of the selective drugs. This review focuses on applications of nanogels in cancer drug delivery and imaging, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐psoriatic, transdermal, ocular and protein/peptide drug delivery and therapy. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 7:509–533. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1328 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Characteristic features of nanogel.
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Live/dead assay showing the complete destruction of the breast cancer cells after ACM‐TNG (Gold nanoparticles loaded Chitin‐Manganese dioxide Ternary composite Nanogels) treatment at 100 W/2‐min radiofrequency (RF) exposure.
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Schematic representation of the mechanism of toxicity induced in a CD44‐positive HT‐29 colon cancer cell by doxorubicin‐loaded cystamine‐linked HA‐chitin nanogels.
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Fluorescent microscopy images of doxorubicin‐loaded chitin nanogels taken up by cancer cells after 4 h of incubation.
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Schematic representation of intracellular release of doxorubicin from chitin–poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite nanogels.
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Images showing the skin localization of curcumin‐loaded chitin nanogel using fluorescent microscopy.
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Schematic representation of the interaction of nanogel with keratinocytes and transdermal permeation.
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Fluorescent images showing the corneal localization of Flu‐CNGs and fluconazole; (a) control cornea; (b) fluconazole‐treated cornea; (c) control chitin nanogel‐treated cornea, (d) Flu‐CNG‐treated cornea, and (e)–(h) histopathology studies for (e) control cornea; (f) control fluconazole; (g) control chitin nanogels, and (h) Flu‐CNG‐treated cornea.
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Schematic representations of loading of timolol and nanodiamond (ND) into chitosan nanogel and lysozyme‐mediated release on instillation into eye.
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Classification of nanogel based on the synthesis methods.
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Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease

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