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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Improving drug biological effects by encapsulation into polymeric nanocapsules

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This review is based on selected reports from 2004 to 2014 and provides a comprehensive and updated overview of the state of the art related to the drug delivery advantages of polymeric nanocapsules, which are a specific type of polymeric nanoparticles used for improvement of biological effects. Special attention is given to the application of nanocapsules to increase the chemical and photostability of drugs, to modulate the interaction with cells and tissues, to reduce adverse effects of drugs, and to increase the drug efficiency and/or bioavailability. Moreover, this review covers in vitro and in vivo studies, highlighting interesting examples of drugs from several therapeutic classes for which efficacy is improved by encapsulation in different types of nanocapsules, especially in lipid‐core nanocapsules. We also briefly present the first results obtained so far attesting to the safety of using polymeric nanocapsules for drug delivery. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 7:623–639. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1334 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials
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Skin irritation after application of capsaicin‐loaded nanocapsules incorporated into a chitosan gel. CH, chitosan gel; ET, ethanolic solution; NC, nanocapsules. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2014 Dovepress)
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In vivo imaging of the fluorescent marker DiR loaded into nanocapsules with (NC5) or without (NC3) folate modified surface, two different tumor types – IGROV‐1 and He‐La were analyzed. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society)
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Tumor size observed in glioma‐implanted animals after treatment with indomethacin‐loaded nanocapsules. NC, nanocapsules; IndOH, indomethacin. ***Significantly different from the control, drug‐unloaded nanocapsules (NC) and indomethacin (IndOH) groups (p < 0.001). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 Elsevier)
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In vitro antioxidant activity of nanoencapsulated lipoic acid. NCAL, lipoic acid‐loaded nanocapsules; SAL, control drug solution. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 American Scientific Publishers)
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Vaginal mucosae after contact with nanoformulations. (a) Control of plain mucosae, (b) control of free nile red formulation, (c) nanoformulation composed of cationic nanocapsules, and (d) nanoformulation composed of anionic nanocapsules). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2014 Dovepress)
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Photostability of clobetasol propionate, encapsulated into different nanostructures, under UVA light. CS, commercial solution; ES, ethanol solution; NC, nanocapsules; NS, nanoshperes; NE, nanoemulsion. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 American Scientific Publishers)
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