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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Biomedical applications of gold nanomaterials: opportunities and challenges

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In the past few years, there has been an unprecedented development of gold nanomaterials (AuNMs) for potential clinical applications. Owing to their advantageous physical, chemical, and biological properties, AuNMs have attracted great attention in the nanomedicine arena for applications in biological sensing, biomedical imaging, drug delivery, and photothermal therapy. Their tunable size, shape, and surface characteristics coupled with excellent biocompatibility render them ideal candidates for translation from bench‐top to bedside. This review summarizes the recent research on the applications of AuNM with a focus on biomedical diagnostics and therapeutics. The bio‐interaction of these NM with cells and their in vivo responses are presented. After reviewing these potential applications, future challenges and prospects are discussed and the suitability of how AuNMs are used as effective tools in clinical medicine is assessed. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 7:779–796. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1341 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials
Schematic illustration of Au nanostructures proposed for biomedical applications.
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Gold nanosphere conjugates for photothermal applications. (a) Schematic illustration of the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–gold nanoparticle (AuNP) and photothermal activation mechanisms. (b) Photoacoustic scanning microscopic imaging of healthy (upper panel) and tumor tissue (lower panel) before and after the administration of TNF–AuNP. (c) In vivo antitumor effect observed in different mice groups. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Macmillan Publishers Ltd, Nature Publishing Group)
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Schematic diagram showing the preparation of a surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)‐based immunosensor. (a) IgG and bovine serum albumin (BSA) are co‐immobilized on the self‐designed immune substrate according to the standard sandwich immunoassay method, and (b) the illustration of the sandwich interaction among the Raman reporter‐labeled immune gold nanoparticle (AuNP), the antigen, and the immune substrate. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2008 Elsevier Publishers)
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Multimodal imaging of Au nanoshells administered intravenously into nude mice. (a) Near‐infrared (NIR) images of HER2 low‐expressing MDAMB231 xenograft and HER2‐overexpressing BT474AZ at 0.3, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h postinjection. (b) T2‐weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of mice showing HER2‐overexpressing BT474AZ xenograft and HER2 low‐expressing MDAMB231 xenograft at 0.3, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h postinjection. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society)
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Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showing human serum albumin (HSA) protein corona formation over citrate‐ and lipoic acid‐coated 40‐nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). (a) Bare citrate Au, (b) citrate Au covered by HSA corona, (c) bare lipoic Au, and (d) lipoic Au covered by HSA corona (Reprinted from Ref. ).
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(a) Schematic and (b) fluorescence images showing size‐dependent uptake of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with herceptin antibodies. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2008 Nature Publications)
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Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease
Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

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