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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanoprobes for enhanced electrochemical DNA sensors

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Biosensors, small devices enabling selective bioanalysis because of properly assembled biological recognition molecules, represent the fortuitous results of years of interdisciplinary and complementary investigations in different fields of science. The ultimate role of a biosensor is to provide coupling between the recognition element and the analyte of interest, bringing a quantitative value of its concentrations into a complex sample matrix. They offer many advantages. Among them, portability, low cost with fast response times, and the possibility to operate in situ without the need for sample preparation are certainly the most important. Among biosensors, a large space is occupied by DNA biosensors. Screening genomic DNA is of fundamental importance for the development of new tools available to physicians during the clinical process. Sequencing of individual human genomes, accomplished principally by microarrays with optical detection, is complex and expensive for current clinical protocols. Efforts in research are focused on simplifying and reducing the cost of DNA biosensors. For this purpose, other transduction techniques are under study to make more portable and affordable DNA biosensors. Compared with traditional optical detection tools, electrochemical methods allow the same sensitivity and specificity but are less expensive and less labor intensive. Scalability of electrochemical devices makes it possible to use the advantages introduced by nanosized components. The involvement of nanomaterials and nanostructures with custom‐tailored shapes and properties is expected to rapidly boost the field of electrochemical DNA biosensors and, in general, that of next‐generation sequencing technologies. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 7:817–827. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1344 This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing
Scheme of electrochemical DNA biosensor with a sandwich format.
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Schematic representation of three platforms based on DNA wire sensors: (a) vertical, (b) planar, and (c) faced. The red and blue oligonucleotides represent the two capture probes used in the detection of the DNA target (in orange).
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Schematic of the standard protocol applied in silver enhancement treatment explored in many GNP‐based nanosensors.
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Schematics of the polypyrrole NW‐based sensor used in Ref for the label‐free DNA detection.
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Schematic of the SiNW‐based sensor used for the ultrasensitive label‐free electrical detection of DNA hybridization.
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The different nanosensor geometries considered.
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The E‐DNA sensor of Fan et al. The onset of hybridization is followed by a rapid change in the redox current that is attributed to the increased separation of the redox label by the gold electrode surface.
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Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices
Diagnostic Tools > In Vitro Nanoparticle-Based Sensing
Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing

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