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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Adjuvants in micro‐ to nanoscale: current state and future direction

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Adjuvants have been used in vaccines for over 70 years to promote long‐lived and sterilizing immunity. Since then, various adjuvant systems were developed by combining nanotechnology with natural and/or synthetic immunomodulatory molecules. These systems are biocompatible, immunogenic, and possess higher antigen carrying capacity. This article showcases advancements made in the adjuvant systems formulations, their synthesis routes, and the improvement of these adjuvants have brought in response to combat against ongoing global health threats such as malaria, hepatitis C, universal influenza, and human immunodeficiency virus. This review also highlights the interaction of adjuvants with the delivery of antigens to cells and unfolds mechanism of actions. In addition, this review discusses the physicochemical factors responsible for the efficient interaction of nanoadjuvants with antigen receptors to develop more effective, less reactogenic, and multifunctional systems for the next generation vaccines. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2015, 8:61–84. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1354 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Protein and Virus-Based Structures
Geometric mean titers for the Sub/MF59 (Ag1/2/3+adjuvant) and Subunit (Ag1/2/3) vaccine groups for the antigens taken from Californian, Shanghai, and New Caledonia regions after postvaccination. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2007 Elsevier)
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Timeline of the evolution of aluminum compound as adjuvant. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2009 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.)
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Development history of adjuvants with time. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.)
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Effect of amount of vaccine dose and adjuvant on adverse events of special interest in young and older adults. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Elsevier)
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Frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) and human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 (HPV18)‐specific memory B cells before vaccination and 2 and 7 months of postvaccination. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2006 Elsevier)
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Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Protein and Virus-Based Structures
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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