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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanoparticle dosage—a nontrivial task of utmost importance for quantitative nanosafety research

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For a detailed and correct understanding of effects of colloidal nanoparticles exposed to organisms, a correlation of such effects to the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles is a necessity. Such correlation is complex by the fact that many physicochemical parameters such as size, shape, surface charge, and colloidal stability are interlinked, and nontrivial to experimentally determine. This review aims to give an overview regarding such correlations. Particular focus will be given on the role of determining nanoparticle concentrations, which is the basis for most quantitative toxicity evaluations. A comparison of mass versus particle number concentrations is given, and their respective differences are highlighted. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:479–492. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1378 This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials
Schematic overview of the key parameters for nanosafety research: the importance of the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and the effect of the dose metrics used to evaluate the biological responses of NPs.
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Gold nanoparticles (NPs) with core diameter dc without (left) and with (right) polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating. In case of the PEG coating the diameter increased do to the PEG shell to dcs > dc.
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Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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