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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Coaxial electrospun fibers: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering

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Coelectrospinning and emulsion electrospinning are two main methods for preparing core–sheath electrospun nanofibers in a cost‐effective and efficient manner. Here, physical phenomena and the effects of solution and processing parameters on the coaxial fibers are introduced. Coaxial fibers with specific drugs encapsulated in the core can exhibit a sustained and controlled release. Their exhibited high surface area and three‐dimensional nanofibrous network allows the electrospun fibers to resemble native extracellular matrices. These features of the nanofibers show that they have great potential in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Proteins, growth factors, antibiotics, and many other agents have been successfully encapsulated into coaxial fibers for drug delivery. A main advantage of the core–sheath design is that after the process of electrospinning and release, these drugs remain bioactive due to the protection of the sheath. Applications of coaxial fibers as scaffolds for tissue engineering include bone, cartilage, cardiac tissue, skin, blood vessels and nervous tissue, among others. A synopsis of novel coaxial electrospun fibers, discussing their applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering, is covered pertaining to proteins, growth factors, antibiotics, and other drugs and applications in the fields of bone, cartilage, cardiac, skin, blood vessel, and nervous tissue engineering, respectively. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:654–677. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1391 This article is categorized under: Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanoscale Tools and Techniques in Surgery
Schematic of preparation of coaxial nanofibers with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) encapsulated in the core and epidermal growth factor (EGF) immobilized on the surface. The fibers showed a dual release profile. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 Royal Society of Chemistry)
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Basic release mechanisms: (a) Diffusion through pores. (b) Diffusion through polymer networks. (c) Osmotic pumping. (d) Erosion of a polymer. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 Elsevier)
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(a) Set up of coelectrospinning for core–sheath nanofibers. (b) Set up of coelectrospinning in a water‐immersed collector for porous core–sheath nanofibers. (c) TEM image of core–sheath gelatin/poly‐ε‐caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society)
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(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and TEM images of the aligned coaxial nanofibers. (b) Surgical implantation of the aligned coaxial fibers for nerve regeneration in a rat. The fibers were used to bridge a 13‐mm nerve defect. (c) The contour of nerve after 12 weeks. (d) Regenerated nerve after removing the aligned coaxial fibers. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 Taylor & Francis (www.tandfonline.com))
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(a) Nylon‐6,6 electrospun fibers prepared at a tip‐to‐collector distance of 2 cm. (b) Interconnected fiber mesh prepared at a tip‐to‐collector distance of 0.5 cm. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 1999 Elsevier)
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(a) Coaxial fluid jet formed by coelectrospinning. (b) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of coaxial PANI/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons)
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Proposed mechanism of emulsion electrospinning. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons)
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A schematic of coaxial electrospinning. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2008 Taylor & Francis (www.tandfonline.com))
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The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) for different meshes. *P < 0.05. **P > 0.05. (Reprinted with permission from American Chemical Society)
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Weight loss as a function of time for porous, single component, and coaxial fiber scaffolds. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons)
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SEM images of coaxial fibers (a and c) and emulsion coaxial fibers (b, d, e, and f). (e) A bigger disperse‐to‐continuous phase ratio (1/5) in core. (F) A smaller ratio (1/55).
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Antibacterial activity of ampicillin incorporated fibers by optical density measurement. The gradual increase of antibacterial effectiveness for NF‐AC1, NF‐AC2, NF‐AC3, NF‐AC4, and NF‐AC5 (corresponding to the concentration of 1, 2, 5, 15, and 20% ampicillin respectively). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2013 Elsevier)
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Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants
Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanoscale Tools and Techniques in Surgery
Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanotechnology in Tissue Repair and Replacement

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