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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Amylose engineering: phosphorylase‐catalyzed polymerization of functional saccharide primers for glycobiomaterials

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Interest in amylose and its hybrids has grown over many decades, and a great deal of work has been devoted to developing methods for designing functional amylose hybrids. In this context, phosphorylase‐catalyzed polymerization shows considerable promise as a tool for preparing diverse amylose hybrids. Recently, advances have been made in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and characterization of amylose‐block‐polymers, amylose‐graft‐polymers, amylose‐modified surfaces, hetero‐oligosaccharides, and cellodextrin hybrids. Many of these saccharides provide clear opportunities for advances in biomaterials because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Important developments in bioapplications of amylose hybrids have also been made, and such newly developed amylose hybrids will help promote the development of new generations of glyco materials. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1423. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1423 This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Chemical structure of amylose (a) and phosphorylase‐catalyzed synthesis of amylose (b).
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Chemical structures and diagrams of spermine‐modified amylose star polymers (a) and gene‐silencing effect of siRNA/cationic polymer complexes (b).
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Schematic diagram of phosphorylase‐catalyzed reaction of amylose‐primer surfactant (a), membrane protein reconstitution on l‐α‐dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposome by enzyme‐responsive micelle–vesicle transition system (b), and enzyme‐responsive artificial chaperone system based on amylose‐primer surfactant (c).
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(a) Synthetic scheme for cellodextrin with azide groups at reducing end by cellulose phosphorylase‐catalyzed polymerization (a) and schematic illustration of post‐functionalization of azide groups to give cellulose nanosheets with 1‐ethynylpyrene groups through copper‐catalyzed click reactions (b). (Reproduced with permission from Ref . Copyright 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry)
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Phosphorylase‐catalyzed synthesis of various hetero‐oligosaccharides.
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Chemical structure of maltopentaose‐modified cholesteryl poly(l‐lysine) (ChMaPLL) (a) and schematic diagram of ChMaPLL nanogel and amylose‐modified cholesteryl poly(l‐lysine) nanogel (b).
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Schematic diagrams of structures of two different types of amylose‐graft‐polystyrene.
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Chemical structures and diagrams of amylose‐primer‐modified poly(ethylene glycol)s (a) and chemical structures of hydrophobic guest molecules (b). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society)
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Chemical structure of amylose‐bmPEG and formation of reverse micelles in chloroform (a), and chemical structure of amylose‐b‐poly(styrene) and scanning force microscopy image of micellar aggregates of amylose‐b‐poly(styrene) in aqueous solution (b). (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society)
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Schematic diagram of amylose‐based materials prepared by the phosphorylase‐catalyzed reaction of amylose primers.
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