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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Nanomedicine approaches to improve cancer immunotherapy

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Significant advances have been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy by orchestrating the body's immune system to eradicate cancer cells. However, safety and efficacy concerns stemming from the systemic delivery of immunomodulatory compounds limits cancer immunotherapies expansion and application. In this context, nanotechnology presents a number of advantages, such as targeted delivery to immune cells, enhanced clinical outcomes, and reduced adverse events, which may aid in the delivery of cancer vaccines and immunomodulatory agents. With this in mind, a diverse range of nanomaterials with different physicochemical characteristics have been developed to stimulate the immune system and battle cancer. In this review, we will focus on some recent developments and the potential advantages of utilizing nanotechnology within the field of cancer immunotherapy. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1456. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1456 This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Cancer immunity cycle. The progression of cancer recognition and immunity typically cycles through the release of TAAs, presentation of TAAs by APCs, priming of T cells by activated APCs, migration of T cells back to the tumor, killing of tumor cells by T cells, and release of more TAAs. Nanoparticle approaches to cancer immunotherapy should focus on improving the progression of these steps via delivery of antigen and immune modulators that increase response and reduce immunosuppressive mechanisms. APC, antigen‐presenting cell; TAA, tumor‐associated antigen.
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Nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy. Nanoparticles with different structures can be used cancer immunotherapy, which includes (a) dendrimer, (b) micelles, (c) virus‐like nanoparticles, (d) liposomes, (e) gold nanoparticles, and so on.
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Cancer immunosuppression mechanisms. Antitumor immunity can be suppressed by recruited immune cells that secrete immunosuppressive compounds within the TME. Tumor cells themselves can also suppress immunity by expressing surface molecules that cause T cell anergy and exhaustion. APM, antigen processing machine; CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte; CTLA‐4, CTL‐associated protein‐4; DC, dendritic cell; NP, nanoparticle; IDO, indoleamine 2,3‐dioxygenase; MDSC, myeloid‐derived suppressive cell; NK, natural killer; TCR, T cell receptor; TGF‐β, transforming growth factor beta; TAM, tumor‐associated macrophages. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2015 Elsevier)
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The sizes of vaccine delivery systems and pathogenic agents. APC, antigen‐presenting cell; ISCOM, immunostimulatory complex; VLP, virus‐like particle. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2010 Nature Publishing Group)
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Cancer cell membrane‐coated nanoparticles for cancer vaccination. (Reprinted with permission from Ref . Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society)
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Strategies of nanoimmunotherapy for cancer. NPs can deliver antigens and adjuvants to induce DC maturation. NP formulation can enhance the presentation of TAAs. Additionally, NPs can restore T cell antitumor function by delivering CTLA‐4 or PD‐1/PD‐L1 antibodies (anti‐CTLA‐4 or anti‐PD‐1/ PD‐L1) that stop anergy. CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte; CTLA‐4, CTL‐associated protein‐4; DC, dendritic cell; NP, nanoparticle; PD‐1, programmed death‐1.
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Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology

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