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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Application of nanotechnology in biosensors for enhancing pathogen detection

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Rapid detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms is fundamental to minimizing the spread of infectious disease, and informing clinicians on patient treatment strategies. This need has led to the development of enhanced biosensors that utilize state of the art nanomaterials and nanotechnology, and represent the next generation of diagnostics. A primer on nanoscale biorecognition elements such as, nucleic acids, antibodies, and their synthetic analogs (molecular imprinted polymers), will be presented first. Next the application of various nanotechnologies for biosensor transduction will be discussed, along with the inherent nanoscale phenomenon that leads to their improved performance and capabilities in biosensor systems. A future outlook on characterization and quality assurance, nanotoxicity, and nanomaterial integration into lab‐on‐a‐chip systems will provide the closing thoughts. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
(a) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody structure. (b) Direct immunoassay format. (c) Indirect immunoassay format
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(Left) Ideal portrayal of complex nanosystems composed of core, shells, ligands, functional groups surface charge, surface adsorbates, and structural geometry. (Right) Real materials include far more species: side products, decomposition products, extra ligands, reactants, catalysts, and salts. (Reprinted with permission from Richman and Hutchison (). Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society)
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(a) Synthesis route for soft‐templating, (b) Synthesis route for hard‐templating (Reprinted with permission from Shi et al. (). Copyright 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry). (c, d) FE‐SEM images of the porous membranes prepared using an organized hard template. The particle sizes of silica colloids used as templates were (c) 40–50 nm, (D) 10–20 nm (Reprinted with permission from Woo, Dokko, Sasajima, Takei, and Kanamura (). Copyright 2006 The Royal Society of Chemistry)
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(a) Cantilever array based artificial nose (Reprinted with permission from Baller et al. (). Copyright 2000 Elsevier). Two modes of cantilever‐based biomolecule detection: (b) deflection mode and, (c) resonance mode (Reprinted with permission from Hwang, Lee, Kim, Lee, and Kim (). Copyright 2009 Annual Reviews)
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(a) Single‐walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) (Reprinted with permission from Gajewicz et al. (). Copyright 2012 Elsevier). (b) TEM images of MWCNTs (Reprinted with permission from Abbasi, Zebarjad, Baghban, and Youssefi (). Copyright 2015 Taylor & Francis). (c) A graphic of a DNA functionalized CNT field effect transistor (Reprinted with permission from Johnson (). Copyright 2017 Charlie Johnson)
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(a) Molecular imprinting process adopted from reference (Poma et al., ) with permission from Elsevier. (b) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) image of nanoparticles with virus attached for the construction of the recognition layer (Reprinted with permission from Cumbo, Lorber, Corvini, Meier, and Shahgaldian (). Copyright 2013 Nature) (c) SEM image of nMIPS after virus template is removed (Reprinted with permission from Cumbo et al. (). Copyright 2012 Nature)
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(a) SEM image of the nitrogen‐doped ZnO nanowire array (Reprinted with sion from Yuan et al. ().Copyright 2008 Nature Publishing Group). (b) Schematic of an SiNW‐FET integrated into a microfluidic device for biosensing (Reprinted with permission from M.‐Y. Shen, Li, and Li (). Copyright 2014 Elsevier). (c) When positively charged targets bind on an n‐type SiNW‐FET, holes are accumulated in the SiNW leading to an increase in the electrical conductance. Conversely, negatively charged targets cause a depletion of charge carriers stored reducing the conductance of SiNW (Reprinted with permission from M.‐Y. Shen et al. (). Copyright 2014 Elsevier)
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Size dependent emission spectra of quantum dots (Reprinted with permission from Vasudevan, Gaddam, Trinchi, and Cole (). Copyright 2015 Elsevier)
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Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices

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