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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Cascade‐amplification of therapeutic efficacy: An emerging opportunity in cancer treatment

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Increasing research evidence reveals that cancer is complex disease involving many biological factors, processes and systems, which may severely limit the actual efficacy of conventional monotonic anticancer approaches. To overcome these obstacles in cancer treatment, a new strategy has been proposed by combining multiple synergistic therapeutic modalities accessing different but inherently related targets and acting sequentially. A major benefit of this strategy is that the multi‐target mechanism could result in a cascade‐amplification effect leading to enhanced anticancer activity. In this review, we provide a critical discussion on the application of cascade‐amplification strategy in the treatment of various cancer indications, focusing on the rational combination of therapeutic agents and their mechanisms of action. A concise yet comprehensive analysis on the potential therapeutic benefit of this strategy was also included. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Oncologic Disease
Designing nanotechnology‐enabled therapeutic cascades from frequently used antitumor modalities
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Synthetic scheme of the BSA‐coated [email protected]2S3 nanoparticles and their PTT‐enhanced radiotherapy in tumor‐bearing mice. Reproduced with permission from Guo et al. (). Copyright © 2017, John Wiley and Sons
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Synthesis scheme of the core–satellite theranostic nano‐assembly for PTT enhanced PDT. Reproduced with permission from Goel et al. (). Copyright © 2017, John Wiley and Sons
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Schematic illustration of the photothermally enhanced cisplatin chemotherapy. Reproduced with permission from Li et al. ()
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Facilitative effect of PDT enhanced DOX chemotherapy using lanthanide‐doped mesoporous silica frameworks. Reproduced with permission from Kalluru, Vankayala, Chiang, and Hwang (). Copyright © 2016, John Wiley and Sons
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Principles of the cisplatin‐enabled radiosensitization with cisplatin‐tethered gold nanoparticles. Reproduced from Setua, Ouberai, Piccirillo, Watts, and Welland () with permission from the Royal Society of Chemistry
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(a) Formation of the gemcitabine monophosphate/cisplatin co‐loaded PLGA‐based nanocarrier. (b) Schematic illustration of the ratiometric delivery process of the tumor‐targeted nanocarrier and its therapeutic action in tumor cells. Reproduced with permission from Miao, Guo, Zhang, Kim, and Huang (). Copyright © 2014, John Wiley and Sons
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