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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Immunoengineering in glioblastoma imaging and therapy

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Abstract Patients diagnosed with glioblastoma have poor prognosis. Conventional treatment strategies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy demonstrated limited clinical success and have considerable side effects on healthy tissues. A central challenge in treating brain tumors is the poor permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to therapeutics. Recently, various methods based on immunotherapy and nanotechnology have demonstrated potential in addressing these obstacles by enabling precise targeting of brain tumors to minimize adverse effects, while increasing targeted drug delivery across the BBB. In addition to treating the tumors, these approaches may be used in conjunction with imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography to enhance the prognosis procedures. This review aims to provide mechanistic understanding of immune system regulation in the central nervous system and the benefits of nanoparticles in the prognosis of brain tumors. This article is characterized under: Diagnostic Tools > in vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Cells at the Nanoscale Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Scheme showing the importance of the immune system in tumor promotion/rejection, including pro‐ and anti‐tumor components of the tumor microenvironment during brain tumor development. During tumor promotion (left panel), myeloid suppressor cells, Th2 CD4+ T cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress the function of cytotoxic CD8+ cells and polarize tumor‐associated macrophages (TAMs) toward an M2‐like phenotype. During tumor rejection (right panel), Th1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells directly modulate tumor cell cytotoxicity through cytokine release (e.g., interleukin‐1 [IL‐1] and interferon gamma [IFNγ]) and indirectly polarize TAMs toward tumor suppression (M1 polarization of TAMs). In the brain, B cells are associated with innate cell accumulation in the neoplastic stroma by production of immunoglobulins and cytokines
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Scheme showing the modulatory effects of nanoparticles on the innate and adaptive immune system. Nanoparticles can be designed to target different components of the immune system such as Tregs, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, NK cells and tumor‐associated macrophages (TAMs)
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Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Nanoscale Systems in Biology
Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Cells at the Nanoscale
Diagnostic Tools > In Vivo Nanodiagnostics and Imaging

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