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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Single and multiple detections of foodborne pathogens by gold nanoparticle assays

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Abstract A late detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food and drinking water has a high potential to cause adverse health impacts in those who have ingested the pathogens. For this reason there is intense interest in developing precise, rapid and sensitive assays that can detect multiple foodborne pathogens. Such assays would be valuable components in the campaign to minimize foodborne illness. Here, we discuss the emerging types of assays based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for rapidly diagnosing single or multiple foodborne pathogen infections. Colorimetric and lateral flow assays based on GNPs may be read by the human eye. Refractometric sensors based on a shift in the position of a plasmon resonance absorption peak can be read by the new generation of inexpensive optical spectrometers. Surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy and the quartz microbalance require slightly more sophisticated equipment but can be very sensitive. A wide range of electrochemical techniques are also under development. Given the range of options provided by GNPs, we confidently expect that some, or all, of these technologies will eventually enter routine use for detecting pathogens in food. This article is categorized under: Diagnostic Tools > Biosensing
Representation of surface electrons of GNPs interacting with electromagnetic waves to induce localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) (Cordeiro, Carlos, Pedrosa, Lopez, & Baptista, ). Reprinted with permission from Cordeiro et al. (). Copyright©2016 Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
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The red colors present on the strip after testing with the samples containing Salmonella boydii, E. coli O157:H7, and the mixture of S. boydii and E. coli O157:H7. Reprinted with permission from Song et al. (). Copyright©2016 Elsevier
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The schematics represent GNP‐based LFA for detection Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella boydii at one time. Reprinted with permission from Song et al. (). Copyright©2016 Elsevier
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The “peace design” GNP‐based‐LFA format was used to distinguish target bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus in the mixed bacteria (S. aureus and P. aeruginosa). (a) The sample contains only S. aureus, (b) The sample contains only P. aeruginosa and (c) the mixture of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, were tested on GNPs‐based Peace design LFA (Li et al., )
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The surface modification of (a) gold and (b) silicon substrates by using GNPs. (c) The treatment of GNPs by with cysteamine (CEA) and 1,4‐phenylenediisothiocyanate (PDITC). Reprinted with permission from Haddada et al. (). Copyright©2018 Elsevier
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A schematic representation of the combination of polyaniline capped MNPs conjugated with anti‐E. coli 0157:H7 monoclonal antibody to separate E. coli 0157:H7. The carbohydrate‐coated GNPs conjugated anti‐E. coli 0157:H7 polyclonal antibody was applied to form a sandwich structure with MNPs and to enhance electrochemical signals. Reprinted with permission from Wang and Alocilja (). Copyright©2015 BioMed Central
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A schematic showing the use of spiny GNPs and aptamer as a SERS nanoprobe to detect Salmonella typhimurium. Reprinted with permission from Ma et al. (). Copyright©2018 Elsevier
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SERS maps of surface of sensor for different concentrations of E. coli O157:H7. Reprinted with permission from Gao et al. (). Copyright©2018 Elsevier
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An overview of ALP labeled SERS active assay for E. coli detection. Reprinted with permission from Bozkurt et al. (). Copyright©2018 Elsevier
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Schematic overview of Salmonella typhimurium detection in samples using a GNP‐aptamer‐based LSPR sensing chip with the property that absorbance is correlated with number of attached live bacteria. Reprinted with permission from Oh et al. (). Copyright©2017 Nature
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Schematic illustration of process to concentrate and detect E. coli 0157:H7 using immunomagnetic beads. (Top) Separation and concertation of target bacteria. (Bottom) GNP‐based LFA for E. coli 0157:H7 detection. Reprinted with permission from Cui et al. (). Copyright©2013 Elsevier
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The detection of E. coli O157:H7 by using GNPs‐based LFAs. The strip only detects E. coli O157:H7 and produces the red color of GNPs at the control line (C) and the test line (T). In the case of Salmonella typhimurium (ST), Campylobacter jejuni (CJ), and Listeria monocytogenes (LM), the red color cannot be detected at the test line. Reprinted with permission from Suria et al. (). Copyright©2015 University Putra Malaysia
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A schematic depiction of the principle of GNP‐based LFA to target genomic DNA (invA gene) amplified by thermophilic HAD for Salmonella detection. The invA gene is labeled with digoxin and biotin (Du et al., ). Reprinted with permission from Du et al. (). Copyright©2017 Elsevier
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Schematic illustration of the principle of detection in the two‐stage aptasensor platform developed by Kim et al. (). Reprinted with permission from Kim et al. (). Copyright©2018 Elsevier
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Schematic diagram showing the use of GNPs in various forms of biomedical applications
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