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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Recent advancements in two‐dimensional nanomaterials for drug delivery

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Abstract Different from conventional zero‐dimensional (0D) and one‐dimensional (1D) counterparts, two‐dimensional (2D) nanomaterials show unique properties resulting from their specific structure and morphology. In recent years, broad interest has been focused on the exploration of 2D nanomaterials for drug delivery, which benefits greatly to various disease treatments due to the superior properties of 2D nanomaterials. The fast development of 2D‐based drug delivery systems provides great potential for biomedical studies. In this review, a case‐by‐case analysis was carried out on the state‐of‐the‐art 2D nanomaterials‐based drug delivery systems, which possesses great significance to the further biomedical development of 2D nanomaterials. For the purpose of discussing the special advantages of these novel drug delivery systems, this review is organized according to the different types of the latest 2D nanomaterials and their loading capacity towards various cargos. Special emphasis will be located on the application of these 2D nanomaterials‐based drug delivery systems in chemotherapy, gene therapy, and immunotherapy. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies
Various types of two‐dimensional nanomaterials explored for drug delivery with different cargos including drug molecules, DNA, RNA, gene, antibodies, and inorganic nanoparticles
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(a) Morphology and fluorescence imaging ability of g‐C3N4 nanosheets. (Reprinted with permission from D. Liu, Lin, Tang, et al. (); Z. Liu, Lin, Zhao, et al. (); C. Liu, Qin, et al. (); W. Liu, Xu, et al. (). Copyright 2018 Wiley VCH). (b) SEM and TEM images of HMSS‐NH2@Pd nanoparticles. (Reprinted with permission from Fang et al. (). Copyright 2012 Wiley VCH). (c) Schematic illustration of the formation and TEM image of Zn(OH)2 nanosheets. (Reprinted with permission from R. Cai et al. (). Copyright 2016 Tsinghua University Press and Springer‐Verlag Berlin Heidelberg). (d) The preparation of 2D Boron nanosheets based drug delivery platform. (Reprinted with permission from Ji et al. (). Copyright 2018 Wiley VCH). (e) The morphology and EDS mapping of 2D PEGylated AM nanosheets. (Reprinted with permission from Tao et al. (). Copyright 2018 Wiley VCH). (f) Schematic representation of nanohydrogels' synthesis based on laponite. (Reprinted with permission from Becher et al. (2018). Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society). (g) The network of 2D porous Zn‐based MOF. (Reprinted with permission from H. Zhang, Chhowalla, and Liu (); Zhang, Xie, et al. (). Copyright 2018 Elsevier). (h) Morphology of Kaolin and the Kaolin intercalation compounds. (Reprinted with permission from Y. Zhang, Long, et al. (); M. Zhang, Xing, et al. (). Copyright 2017 Elsevier)
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(a) High‐resolution SEM image and corresponding elemental‐mapping images. (b) Schematic illustration of stimuli‐responsive drug release. (c) Drug loading capacity and release behaviour. (d) in vivo theranostic properties of Ti3C2@mMSNs‐RGD. (Reprinted with permission from Z. Li et al. (). Copyright 2018 Wiley VCH)
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(a) Schematic illustration of the synthesis process for 2D manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheets. (b) Corresponding morphology characterization and element analysis. (c) The as demonstrated intracellular starvation‐enhanced PTT behavior. (Reprinted with permission from Tang et al. (). Copyright 2019 Wiley VCH). (d) Synthesis process of titanium dioxide (TiO2)/T1107. (e) HR‐SEM microscopic images of TiO2. (f) Drug release amount from TiO2 drug delivery system. (Reprinted with permission from Kushnirov Melnitzer and Sosnik (). Copyright 2018 Wiley VCH)
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(a) Schematic illustration of the preparation process of the tri‐modal nanosystem based on graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet. (b) Atomic force microscopy characterization and the colloid stability of the nanosystem in PBS. (c) Intracellular fluorescence trafficking and corresponding schematic illustration of the Intracellular pathway. (Reprinted with permission from Luan et al. (). Copyright 2018 Wiley VCH). (d) SEM image and Raman spectrum of rGO‐DOX films. (e) Dose response curve for free doxorubicin (DOX) and voltage stimulus mode on HeLa cell viability. (f) Morphology of Hela cells after treatment. (Reprinted with permission from He et al. (). Copyright 2017 Royal Society of Chemistry)
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(a) Colloidal stability and morphology characterization of PEGylated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). (b) Intracellular uptake of MoS2 nanosheets. (c) Schematic illustration of the intracellular fates. (Reprinted with permission from X. Zhu et al. (). Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society). (d) Schematic illustration of the synthesis process. (e) Morphology characterization of Fe(III)@WS2‐PVP. (f) The loading capacity of doxorubicin (DOX) onto Fe(III)@WS2‐PVP. (Reprinted with permission from C. Wu et al. (). Copyright 2019 Wiley VCH)
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(a) Schematic illustration of layered double hydroxides (LDHs)‐based drug delivery system for cancer theranostic application. (b) Morphology characterization of monolayered‐double‐hydroxide. (c) Intracellular fluorescence after NIR irradiation. (Reprinted with permission from Peng, Fang, et al. (); Peng et al. (). Copyright 2018 Wiley VCH). (d) Morphology characterization and size distribution. (e) UV–vis absorption and corresponding fluorescence emission properties of CD‐Ce6/LDH. (f) Photodynamic therapy (PDT) performance of CD‐Ce6/LDH. (Reprinted with permission from T. Hu et al. (). Copyright 2018 Royal Society of Chemistry)
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(a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication of [email protected] (b) In vitro cell experiment of [email protected] loaded doxorubicin (DOX). (c) Fluorescence images of mice at certain time points after different treatments. (d) Corresponding growth curves of treated mice. (e) Body weight recorded every 2 days. (f) H&E‐stained assay of major organs from treated mice. (Reprinted with permission from Qiu et al. (). Copyright 2018 National Academy of Sciences). (g) Schematic illustration of BP nanosheets‐based drug delivery system. (h) Photothermal effect of BP‐DOX with 808 nm laser with mice. (i) Tumor growth curves of mice administrated with BP nanoshees. (Reprinted with permission from C. A. Choi, Lee, et al. (); J. R. Choi, Yong, et al. (). Copyright 2018 Wiley VCH)
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