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WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol
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Biocorona‐induced modifications in engineered nanomaterial–cellular interactions impacting biomedical applications

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Abstract When nanoparticles (NPs) enter a physiological environment, a complex coating of biomolecules is absorbed onto their surface, known as the biocorona (BC). This coating alters nanomaterial physical properties, modulating cellular viability, internalization, and immune responses. To safely utilize NPs within medical settings, it is necessary to understand the influence of the BC on cellular responses. Due to the variety of cell types, NPs, and physiological environments, responses are variable; though trends do exist. This review article critically evaluates the currently available literature regarding the influence of the BC on NP interactions with prominent cell types that they are likely to encounter during biomedical applications. Specifically, we will examine responses related to interactions with endothelial cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells of the digestive tract and lung. Further, we will evaluate how the BC may influence interactions with bacteria and fungi, as NPs have been proposed as antimicrobial agents in medical settings. The information reviewed and discussed here may enhance the development of effective of NP‐based therapeutics and diagnostic tools. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices
NPs are proposed for a number of biomedical applications which will result in their introduction into the body via intravenous injection, inhalation, or ingestion. This results in interactions with specific cell populations including endothelial cells, macrophages, gastrointestinal epithelial cells, or alveolar epithelial cells. NP, nanoparticle
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The BC can inhibit NP antimicrobial properties. The BC can reduce NP interactions with bacteria, reducing internalization and antibacterial activity. Antifungal activity is related to the NP's ability to associate fungal spores. The BC can inhibit these interactions, decreasing NP antifungal properties. BC, biocorona; NP, nanoparticle
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Biomolecules associated with the NP surface can be recognized by cell surface receptors facilitating interactions and internalization. Association with the NP surface can induce conformational alterations in biomolecule structure, allowing for receptor interactions. NP, nanoparticle
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Diagnostic Tools > Diagnostic Nanodevices
Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials
Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies

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